chloramphenicol


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chloramphenicol

(klōr'ămfĕn`əkŏl'), antibioticantibiotic,
any of a variety of substances, usually obtained from microorganisms, that inhibit the growth of or destroy certain other microorganisms. Types of Antibiotics
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 effective against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria (see Gram's stainGram's stain,
laboratory staining technique that distinguishes between two groups of bacteria by the identification of differences in the structure of their cell walls. The Gram stain, named after its developer, Danish bacteriologist Christian Gram, has become an important tool
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). It was originally isolated from a species of Streptomyces bacteria. Chloramphenicol's antibiotic activity results from its interference with protein synthesis in invading microbes. However, it is a very toxic substance, its most serious and potentially lethal effect being depression of red blood cell production in bone marrowbone marrow,
soft tissue filling the spongy interiors of animal bones. Red marrow is the principal organ that forms blood cells in mammals, including humans (see blood). In children, the bones contain only red marrow.
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; cases of leukemia were also attributed to early use of chloramphenicol. Because of its toxicity, chloramphenicol is rarely prescribed for infections that can be treated by other antibiotics. It is used as an alternative therapy to treat typhoid fever, some forms of meningitis, and rickettsial infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever and typhus. Chloramphenicol is commonly used in biological research to study protein synthesis. Chloromycetin is a trade name for chloramphenicol.

chloramphenicol

[‚klȯr‚am′fen·ə‚kȯl]
(microbiology)
C11H12O2N2Cl2 A colorless, crystalline, broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces venezuelae; industrial production is by chemical synthesis. Also known as chloromycetin.
References in periodicals archive ?
To determine the antibiogram of the isolated strains, we selected different antibiotics like ampicillin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, co-trimoxazole, meropenem, imipenem, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and piperacillin-tazobactum (16).
Notwithstanding the lower growth rate in minimal medium plus xylose, the growth inhibition haloes were evident for both A, baumannii and K, pneumoniae in the presence of either tetracycline or chloramphenicol. In addition, the inhibition haloes measured after 12 h remained unmodified when measured after 24, 48, or 72 h (Tables S2 and S3, included in supplementary data).
All 69 isolates were sensitive to co-trimoxazole, gentamycin and ceftriaxone, 60 isolated (86.95%) were sensitive to amoxicillin and 63 (91.30%) were sensitive to chloramphenicol (see Table below).
Although PCR was not carried out in our study, none of the MRSA strains showed resistance to linezolid, chloramphenicol, clindamycin and erythromycin together, suggesting that the gene might not be present in our clinical set up yet.
Next in order of sensitivity was Ciprofloxacin 80% (4) followed by Chloramphenicol (40%).
It has shown 90% sensitivity, against MRSA according to one local study.14 Chloramphenicol is routinely used for the management of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections at some institutes.14 Further clinical studies specially against MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S.
PCA and HCA Analysis of the Total FIC Indices of the Essential Oil, Geraniol, Thymol, and Chloramphenicol Combinations.
The sensitivity of drugs like ampicillin chloramphenicol and co-trimaxazole were 2.8% 12.3% and 22.6% respectively.
Louis, MO), cefoperazone (sodium salt), ciprofloxacin, piperacillin (sodium salt), gentamicin (sulfate salt) obtained from Sigma, tetracycline (hydrochloride) from USB and chloramphenicol from Fluka were used.
Chloramphenicol, piperacillin-tazobactam, ertapenem and amoxicillin-clavulanate demonstrated the highest activity against these isolates, while 11% and 18% demonstrated resistance to metronidazole and clindamycin, respectively.
The sensitivity pattern showed that the resistance rate was highest for Nalidix acid (71.5%), followed by Chloramphenicol (37.5%), Ampicillin (34.8%), Co-trimaxazole (30.7%), Augmentin (14%) and Ciprofloxacin (6%).