cells are aggregated abaxially in the mid rib region.
In both grass species the injury mainly occurred to the chlorenchyma
, which radiates around the bundle sheath.
Leaf surface with epidermal cells and guard cells of stomata polygonal in shape, stomata only present on abaxial side; in tranverse section, adaxial epidermis cells more or less rectangular in shape with inner wall thin, hypodermis with only one layer of cells; non-vascular fibers with estegmata, silica bodies cap-shaped; presence of chlorenchyma
and spongious parenchyma in mesophyll; major vascular bundle with small vessels of protoxylem towards the adaxial side; vascular bundles of the sheath with only one layer of parenchymatic cells.
vertically oriented (e.g., Woodhouse et al.
Trichomes on petiole apex + - - - Layer of chlorenchyma
4 4 4 4 Type of collenchyma annular annular annular annular Astrosclereids + + + + Elongated sclereids - - + - Tubular sclereids - - + - Columnar sclereids - - - - Bundles in midrib 2 2 2 2 Inverted phloem - 1 - 1 Bicollateral bundles in the blade - - - - Bicollateral bundles in the petiole 2 2 2 1 Species Characters N.L.
Histological investigations demonstrated that squash seed coat normally comprise five layers, including the epidermis, hypodermis, sclerenchyma, parenchyma, and chlorenchyma
. Three layers of hypodermis, sclerenchyma, and parenchyma cells were strongly or partially lignified and maintained their integrity to form the hard, leathery hull that was characteristic of hulled- seeded squash seeds.
The central region showed a homogeneous chlorenchyma
with intercellular spaces and small vascular bundles (Fig.
Dewevanae form a strongly supported (B.S.=96%) clade diagnosed by five synapomorphies: proximal perigynia in each spike ascending to appressed (character #3), perigynia relatively narrow (2.5-6.7 times as long as wide--#6), perigynium beak relatively long (beak at least 32% the length of the perigynium--#7), culm with chlorenchyma
present between bundle cap and epidermis for at least two of three vascular bundles at the angles of the culm (#18), and distal portion of perigynium body only one cell thick (#21).
(only adaxial) has smaller isodiametric cells than the storage parenchyma, it has many chloroplasts.
Protein content did not change in the chlorenchyma
of basal cladodes, but decreased in roots, and increased in the hydrochlorenchyma of basal cladodes and chlorenchyma
of apical cladodes.
The individual tissues comprising the stem cross section (epidermis, collenchyma, chlorenchyma
, phloem, cambium, xylem, and parenchyma) were examined to estimate the degree of cell wall thickening with advancing maturity across sampling dates.