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(klôr`əfôrm) or


(trī'klôrōmĕth`ān), CHCl3, volatile, colorless, nonflammable liquid that has a sweetish taste and a somewhat pungent odor; it boils at 61.7°C;. It dissolves freely in ethanol and ether but does not mix with water. Chloroform is produced by reaction of chlorine with ethanol and by the reduction of carbon tetrachloride with moist iron. It was once used as a general anesthetic in surgery but has been replaced by less toxic, safer anesthetics, such as ether. Chemically, it is employed as a solvent for fats, alkaloids, iodine, and other substances. When exposed to sunlight and air it reacts to form phosgenephosgene
, colorless poison gas, first used during World War I by the Germans (1915). When dispersed in air, the gas has the odor of new-mowed hay. The gas is highly toxic; when inhaled it reacts with water in the lungs to form hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide.
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, a poisonous gas.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also trichloromethane), CHCl3, a colorless liquid, with a pungent odor and sweet burning taste. Chloroform has a boiling point of 61.15°C and a density of 1.488 g/cm3 (at 20°C). It is practically insoluble in water but is soluble in most organic solvents. In the light, it is slowly decomposed by atmospheric oxygen with the formation of phosgene, chlorine, hydrogen chloride, and formic acid; consequently, 1 percent ethyl alcohol is added as a stabilizer.

Many reactions of chloroform proceed through the intermediate formation of dichlorocarbene, :CCl2, for example, the synthesis of isocyanides by the reaction of chloroform with primary amines in the presence of alkalies and the reaction of chloroform with the alcoholates RONa, which leads to the formation of ortho esters.

Chloroform is produced by chlorination, for example, of methane, acetone, or alcohol. Considerable chloroform is used in industry in the production of the freon difluorochloromethane, CF2ClH; it is also used as a solvent.

Chloroform is an anesthetic. It exists in two types of preparations. The first is primarily for external use, in medical practice for massages and in histology as a tissue preservative and fixative; occasionally it is used internally in the form of drops to relieve certain symptoms, for example, nausea. The second type of chloroform preparation is used as an anesthetic; it is specially purified and has a strong anesthetizing effect and relatively high toxicity.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(organic chemistry)
CHCl3 A colorless, sweet-smelling, nonflammable liquid; used at one time as an anesthetic. Also known as trichloromethane.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


a heavy volatile liquid with a sweet taste and odour, used as a solvent and cleansing agent and in refrigerants: formerly used as an inhalation anaesthetic. Formula: CHCl3
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The ethanolic extract was evaporated under reduced pressure and the crude extract (0.5 Kg), was partitioned between n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water soluble fractions.
While most of the AGAGE stations throughout the world showed negligible chloroform increases, stations in Japan and South Korea both revealed significant boosts, and the researchers used atmospheric models to confirm that the global chloroform increase originated from East Asia.
Chloroform fraction may inhibit hydrolyzing of starch via pancreatic [alpha]-amylase.
Both benzene and chloroform exposure have been linked to cancer.
However, for the modified plants, the concentration of chloroform dropped by 82% after three days, and it was almost undetectable by day six.
The ethanol and chloroform extracts had an average extraction yield of 4.589% and 3.463%, respectively.
Best results of DPPH free radical scavenging was shown by bark extract in petroleum ether (PE) at absorbance value 95.51+-1.7 at 500 uL/ml, then by chloroform extract with absorbance of 87.19+-0.79 at 250 uL/ml, on the other side, a smaller amount of proficiency is revealed by the bark aqueous extract (43.19+-0.99 at 125uL/mL).
Note that chlorobenzene was found to be not an appropriate solvent for spin-coating deposition of the polymer on the PDMS surface due to dewetting issues, and the complete deposition of P3HT could be achieved only using chloroform at an appropriate spin speed (~1000 rpm).
Chloroform is a volatile organic compound that is commonly used as a solvent, cleanser for plastic compounds, and acrylic adhesive [3].
The formation of fibers was easier employing chloroform/DMF mixture as solvent than chloroform.
Chloroform is extremely toxic and carcinogenic, causes damage to internal organs and irritates eyes and skin.
Methanol, ethanol, chloroform, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), sodium carbonate ([Na.sub.2]C[O.sub.3]), Aluminium trichloride (Al[Cl.sub.3]), Sodium hydroxide (NaOH),sodium nitrite (NaN[O.sub.2])