chloropicrin


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chloropicrin

(klōr'əpĭk`rĭn), colorless oily liquid used as a poison gaspoison gas,
any of various gases sometimes used in warfare or riot control because of their poisonous or corrosive nature. These gases may be roughly grouped according to the portal of entry into the body and their physiological effects.
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. It is a powerful irritant, causing lachrymation, vomiting, bronchitis, and pulmonary edema; lung injury from chloropicrin may result in death. Trace amounts in the air cause a burning sensation in the eyes, which serves as a warning of exposure. Chloropicrin is more toxic than chlorine but less toxic than phosgenephosgene
, colorless poison gas, first used during World War I by the Germans (1915). When dispersed in air, the gas has the odor of new-mowed hay. The gas is highly toxic; when inhaled it reacts with water in the lungs to form hydrochloric acid and carbon monoxide.
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. It is relatively inert and does not react with the chemicals commonly used in gas masks. It has been extensively used as a vomiting gas by the military. It is also used industrially in small amounts as a warning agent in commercial fumigants and as an insecticide and disinfectant for grain. Chloropicrin has the formula CCl3NO2. It boils at 112°C; with partial decomposition to phosgene and nitrosyl chloride.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chloropicrin

 

(also trichloronitromethane), CCl3NO2, a colorless, oily liquid, with a pungent odor. Chloropicrin has a melting point of –64°C, a boiling point of 112.3°C, and a density of 1.6539 g/cm3 (at 20°C). A strong lacrimator, it is practically insoluble in water but is readily soluble in organic solvents. It is not hydrolyzed by water and alkaline aqueous solutions and may be steam-distilled. Alkaline alcohol solutions and aqueous alcohol solutions of Na2S rapidly and quantitatively decompose chloropicrin, which at 400°C decomposes into phosgene and ClNO. Chloropicrin is produced by the chlorination of picric acid and its salts.

The minimal active concentration of chloropicrin is 0.002 mg/liter, and the intolerable concentration, 0.05 mg/liter (for 2 min); in large concentrations, it has an asphyxiating effect. Chloropicrin was used as a poison gas during World War I (1914–18). Presently it is used for checking gas masks and as a war gas for military training.

R. N. STERLIN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

chloropicrin

[‚klȯr·ō′pik·rən]
(inorganic chemistry)
CCl3NO2 A colorless liquid with a sweet odor whose vapor is very irritating to the lungs and causes vomiting, coughing, and crying; used as a soil fumigant. Also known as nitrochloroform; trichloronitromethane.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Buffer zone regulations for the fumigant chloropicrin are designed to limit human exposure.
She's working with plants growing in nonfumigated soil and those growing in beds fumigated with methyl iodide or chloropicrin, for instance.
The fumigants used in this study were chloropicrin (Pic 99, active ingredient [a.i.] 99%, Niklor-Tri-Cal Inc., Mojave, California), Pic-Clor 60 (57% Pic:37% 1,3-D, Tri-Cal Inc., Hollister, California), DMDS:Pic (79% DMDS:21% Pic, United Phosphorus Inc., King of Prussia, Pennsylvania), Tri-Con (50% MBr:50% Pic, Tri-Cal Inc., Hollister, California), Midas (MI, a.i.
Acute symptoms in persons residing near a field treated with the soil fumigants methyl bromide and chloropicrin. West J Med 147:95-98 (1987).
TIF also increased residual chloropicrin in soil, but the concentration was generally an order of magnitude lower than that of 1,3-D.
More importantly, many nursery producers are very concerned about the consequences of soilborne diseases that are currently controlled with methyl bromide or methyl bromide and chloropicrin combinations.
Pic-Clor 60: fumigant product containing 60% chloropicrin and 39% 1,3-D
Currently about 68% of the California strawberry acreage is fumigated with alternatives to methyl bromide, primarily drip-applied mixtures of 1,3-D plus chloropicrin (InLine, Pic-Clor 60) or chloropicrin emulsified formulation (Pic-EC) (CADPR 2011).
Chloropicrin use, since December 2012, is restricted by U.S.
Chloropicrin formulated with methyl bromide (98:2, 67:33 or 50:50 MB:Pic) has been part of the operational fumigant standard for decades in most industrial forest nurseries.
Alternative fumigants permitted for use in California strawberries are 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), chloropicrin and, as of December 2010, methyl iodide.
In this report, we describe field-trial results with an ampule-based chloropicrin formulation compared with application of liquid chloropicrin over a 4-year period in western Oregon.