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Roentgenography of the bile ducts.



roentgenographic examination of the gallbladder and bile ducts after the introduction (orally or intravenously) of an iodine-containing contrast agent that is excreted with bile. The procedure is not applied in the case of pronounced jaundice. Cholangiography yields a clear picture of the anatomical structure and functioning of the gallbladder and bile ducts; it reveals the presence of calculi, or gallstones (cholelithiasis), inflammatory changes (cholecystitis or cholangitis), and disruption of the emptying mechanism of the bladder (dyskinesia).


Lindenbraten, L. D. Rentgenologicheskoe issledovanie pecheni i zhelchnykh putei. Leningrad, 1953.
Gal’perin, E. I., and I. M. Ostrovskaia. Kontrastnoe issledovanie v khirurgii zhelchnykh putei. Moscow, 1964.
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A, High-resolution digital cholangiographic image of the biliary tree in a female patient with an indeterminate biliary stricture.
Ros, "Anatomicvariants of the biliary tree: MR cholangiographic findings and clinical applications," American Journal of Roentgenology, vol.
On the other hand are direct cholangiographic techniques like percutaneous transhepatic cholangio graphy (PTC) and ERCP.
The post-procedure images revealed optimal stent placement with excellent cholangiographic results and patency.
In particular, the hepatic vessels' cholangiographic anatomy, which currently is imaged with both CT and MR, was missing.
Given that serum IgG4 concentrations nor cholangiographic or cholangioscopic features do not differentiate these disorders clearly (32-34), endoscopic biopsy is often required to differentiate IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis from both primary sclerosing cholangitis and hilar cholangiocarcinoma.
Hong et al., "Biliary ductal evaluation of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: three-dimensional direct multi-detector row CT cholangiographic findings versus surgical and pathologic results--feasibility study," Radiology, vol.
Pathological Features.--Primary sclerosing cholangitis involves large bile ducts, and cholangiographic findings of large-duct damage form the mainstay of diagnosis.