choline


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choline:

see vitaminvitamin,
group of organic substances that are required in the diet of humans and animals for normal growth, maintenance of life, and normal reproduction. Vitamins act as catalysts; very often either the vitamins themselves are coenzymes, or they form integral parts of coenzymes.
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Choline

A compound, trimethyl-β-hydroxyethylammonium hydroxide, used by the animal organism as a precursor of acetylcholine and as a source of methyl groups. It is a strongly basic hygroscopic substance with the formula

Choline deficiency in animals is associated with fatty livers, poor growth, and renal lesions. It is a lipotropic agent. There is no direct evidence of disease in humans due to choline deficiency, although there have been suggestions that some of the liver, kidney, or pancreas pathology seen in various nutritional deficiency states may be related to choline insufficiency. Choline is found in acetylcholine, which is necessary for nerve impulse propagation, and in phospholipids.

Humans eat 50–600 mg of choline per day, but only excrete 2–4 mg. Thus, conventional tests are of no value in studying choline requirements, and no knowledge of human choline requirements exists. See Acetylcholine

Choline

 

(also 2-hydroxyethyltrimethylammonium hydroxide), [(CH3)3N+CH2CH2OH]OH; occurs as colorless crystals. Choline is readily soluble in water and ethyl alcohol but is insoluble in ether and benzene. It easily forms salts with strong acids, and in aqueous solution it possesses the properties of a strong base.

Choline was first obtained from bile. Widespread in living organisms, it is particularly abundant in egg yolk and in the brain, liver, kidneys, and heart muscles of animals. It is usually regarded as a vitamin of the B complex, although animals and microorganisms are able to synthesize it. Choline is a constituent of phospholipids, such as lecithin and sphingomyelin, and it functions as a donor of methyl groups in the synthesis of methionine. From choline, animals can synthesize acetylcholine, which is one of the most important transmitters of nerve impulses. Choline is a lipotropic agent—that is, it prevents serious liver disorders that may arise as a result of excess accumulations of fat in the liver.

Choline chloride is used in medicine for the treatment of liver diseases and is included in some animal feeds. It is used for analytical purposes because of its ability to form poorly soluble salts with phosphotungstic acid, chloroplatinic acid, and certain other heteropoly acids.

V. A. IAKOVLEV

choline

[′kō‚lēn]
(biochemistry)
C5H15O2N A basic hygroscopic substance constituting a vitamin of the B complex; used by most animals as a precursor of acetylcholine and a source of methyl groups.
References in periodicals archive ?
Lactation response to short-term abomasal infusion of choline, inositol and soy lecithin.
Although Choline occurs naturally in a number of foods, these foods also tend to be high in fat and cholesterol and with more and more people adopting a low-fat and low-cholesterol diet, people are not meeting daily requirements.
Results reveal babies who eat eggs have significantly higher levels of choline and DHA, an omega-3 fatty acid, both of which play a vital role in brain development and function.
On average, one egg yolk contains around 115mg of choline.
Prof Marie Caudill, of Cornell University, New York, said: "There is wide agreement that giving rodents additional choline has lifelong benefits on offspring cognitive function.
The study - published in the Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology - involved 26 mums divided into two groups, one of which consumed almost twice as much choline as the other.
About half of the women received 480 mg/day of choline, which is slightly more than the adequate intake level and the other half received 930 mg/day.
In May 2017, based on studies using genetically altered mice that show the developmental changes of Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease at 6 months, I raised the question of whether prenatal choline could lead to the prevention of Alzheimer's.
He theorized that choline protects the brain from the effects of aging "by supporting the structure of brain membranes, reducing inflammation, or contributing to the production of neurotransmitters that support cognition.
Choline is the precursor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin (components of cell membranes).
Increase your lecithin levels in order to synthesize choline.