Obstetricians use various methods to attain fetal cells for diagnosis, including chorionic villus
sampling (CVS), amniocentesis (AC), and cordocentesis (CC).
Instruments for chorionic villus
sampling for prenatal diagnosis.
Feasibility and safety of transabdominal chorionic villus
Beta-thalassemia-institution based analysis of ethnic and geographic distribution, effect of consanguinity and safety of chorionic villus
sampling as a diagnostic, tool for pre-natal diagnosis in selected patients.
It then covers complications such as recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia and eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage, emergency care, blood group alloimmunizations, multiple gestations, prevention and management of preterm birth, placental disorders, prolonged pregnancy, cesarean and breech delivery, analgesia and anesthesia, and neonatal encephalopathy and cerebral palsy, ending with amniocentesis and chorionic villus
sampling procedures and fetal surgery.
It is often stated that more fetuses are lost due to such invasive procedures (amniocentesis and chorionic villus
sampling) than are identified as carrying a chromosomal abnormality.
Despite the decrease in HIV transmission with antiretroviral cover, procedures such as chorionic villus
sampling and cordocentesis should still be avoided in the HIV-infected woman as the risk of transmission to the fetus may be considerably higher.
4) The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists guideline on amniocentesis and chorionic villus
sampling advises that patients should be informed of an additional 1% risk of fetal loss following an amniocentesis, and a slightly higher risk following chorionic villus
All of these pregnant women are then offered the option of further, invasive tests including amniocentesis or chorionic villus
sampling, which have about a 1% risk of miscarriage.
The risk of miscarriage following genetic Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus
Sampling was investigated in randomized clinical trials in the 1980's and early 1990's13,14.
Accuracy of cytogenetic findings on chorionic villus
sampling (CVS) -- diagnostic consequences of CVS mosaicism and non-mosaic discrepancy in centres contributing to EUCROMIC 1986-1992.
Amniocentesis is associated with a one-in-two hundred incidence, and chorionic villus
sampling with a one-in-one hundred incidence of abortion of the unborn child.