chorionic villus sampling


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chorionic villus sampling

(CVS) or

chorionic villus biopsy

(CVB) (kōr'ē-ŏn`ĭk, kôr'–), diagnostic procedure in which a sample of chorionic villi from the developing placenta is removed from the uterus of a pregnant woman (see pregnancypregnancy,
period of time between fertilization of the ovum (conception) and birth, during which mammals carry their developing young in the uterus (see embryo). The average duration of pregnancy in humans is about 280 days, equal to 9 calendar months.
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) using a fine needle inserted through the abdomen or a thin plastic catheter inserted into the vagina and through the cervix. Chorionic villi are fingerlike projections of a membrane (the chorion) that surrounds the fetus. The villi develop from the fertilized ovumovum
, in biology, specialized plant or animal sex cell, also called the egg, or egg cell. It is the female sex cell, or female gamete; the male gamete is the sperm. The study of the ovum is included in the science of embryology.
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, or egg, and have a genetic composition similar to that of the fetus. Cells in the sample are grown in the laboratory and studied to detect the presence in the fetus of such genetic birth defectsbirth defects,
abnormalities in physical or mental structure or function that are present at birth. They range from minor to seriously deforming or life-threatening. A major defect of some type occurs in approximately 3% of all births.
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 as Tay-Sachs diseaseTay-Sachs disease
, rare hereditary disease caused by a genetic mutation that leaves the body unable to produce an enzyme necessary for fat metabolism in nerve cells, producing central nervous system degeneration.
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 and Down syndromeDown syndrome,
congenital disorder characterized by mild to severe mental retardation, slow physical development, and characteristic physical features. Down syndrome affects about 1 in every 730 live births and occurs in all populations equally.
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. The sex of the child can also be ascertained. Although CVS tests for the same range of abnormalities as amniocentesisamniocentesis
, diagnostic procedure in which a sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding a fetus is removed from the uterus by means of a fine needle inserted through the abdomen of the pregnant woman (see pregnancy).
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, it is usually performed some weeks earlier (between the 8th and 12th weeks of pregnancy), and the results are available in a few days. It is recommended if the parents are carriers of certain genetic diseases, if there is a family history of genetic disorders, or if the woman is over age 35 (later pregnancies carrying with them a higher risk of chromosomal abnormality).
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chorionic villus sampling

[¦kör·ē‚an·ik ′vil·əs ‚sam·pliŋ]
(medicine)
A technique in which samples of chorionic villi are taken from the placenta for the purpose of genetic testing; usually performed at the end of the second month of pregnancy.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Prediction of miscarriage and stillbirth at 11-13 weeks and the contribution of chorionic villus sampling. Prenat Diagn 2011;31:38-45.
Chorionic villus sampling compared with amniocentesis and the difference in the rate of pregnancy loss.
Amniocentesis and Chorionic Villus Sampling. Green-top Guideline No.
(9) Despite the decrease in HIV transmission with antiretroviral cover, procedures that require more technical skills--such as chorionic villus sampling and cordocentesis--should still be avoided in the HIV-infected woman, as the risk of transmission to the fetus may be considerably increased.
"This would leave just 0.1% of all pregnant women needing referrals for amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling."
amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, would not be morally acceptable.
The ACOG guidelines also recommend that women found to have increased risk of aneuploidy based on this screening should be offered genetic counseling and the option of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or second-trimester amniocentesis.
Both amniocentesis and another procedure called chorionic villus sampling, in which doctors pluck bits of the placenta, isolate fetal cells that can reveal many genetic problems in an unborn baby with near certainty.
Previously, the only way to know if a woman was having a baby with Down's was with second-trimester blood tests and/or invasive amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS) tests, all of which carry a slight risk of miscarriage.