chromatid


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Related to chromatid: chromomere

chromatid

(krō`mətəd): see chromosomechromosome
, structural carrier of hereditary characteristics, found in the nucleus of every cell and so named for its readiness to absorb dyes. The term chromosome
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; crossing overcrossing over,
process in genetics by which the two chromosomes of a homologous pair exchange equal segments with each other. Crossing over occurs in the first division of meiosis. At that stage each chromosome has replicated into two strands called sister chromatids.
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.

Chromatid

 

one of the components of a chromosome, formed in the nucleus during the interphase of the cell nucleus as a result of the chromosome’s duplication. In mitosis, each chromosome consists of two chromatids; after separating into the daughter nuclei, each chromatid becomes an independent chromosome. In meiosis, homologous chromosomes come together in pairs to make up a four-chromatid structure, or tetrad.

According to the single-chain chromosome model, each chromatid contains in cross section a single tightly coiled and condensed double-strand molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). In the multichain chromosome model, it is assumed that each chromatid contains in cross section several DNA molecules, in which case various types of chromatids are distinguished, such as semichromatids and quarter-chromatids. Most experiments have confirmed the single-chain model.

I. I. KIKNADZE

chromatid

[′krō·mə·təd]
(cell and molecular biology)
One of the pair of strands formed by longitudinal splitting of a chromosome which are joined by a single centromere in somatic cells during mitosis.
One of a tetrad of strands formed by longitudinal splitting of paired chromosomes during diplotene of meiosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Since DSCC1 plays important roles in insister chromatid cohesion, DNA replication, and cell cycle, we performed cell cycle analysis with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) flow cytometry kit to determine the impact of DSCC1 silencing on cell cycle transition in HCC cell lines.
Cell cycle checkpoint 0.91648 39 Mitotic sister chromatid segregation 0.91597 29 Regulation of cyclin-dependent protein 0.88779 32 serine/threonine kinase activity Reproduction 0.84575 23 DNA damage checkpoint 0.84231 26 G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle 0.84194 34 Figure 3.
Crossen, "The incidence of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human lymphocytes," Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms ofMutagenesis, vol.
Sibling chromatid exchange is used as a sensitive indicator of chromosomal exposure because increased frequency of SCE also occurs with exposure to genotoxic factors at low levels.
Sevoflurane anaesthesia does not induce the formation of sister chromatid exchanges in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children.
Dicentric chromosomes (DC), acentric fragments (AF), and chromatid breaks (ChB) were the indices used to evaluate the chromosomal aberrations during the present study.
Ionising radiation induced chromosome type of aberrations in G1, chromatid type of aberrations in G2 and most of the S phase.
Sister chromatid gene conversion is a prominent double-strand break repair pathway in mammalian cells.
segregation, called random chromatid segregation and maximum equational
Moreover, tea drinking has recently proven to be associated with cell-mediated immune function of the human body (Wu et al., 2012) and protects against hepatitis C virus entry (Calland et al., 2012).Earlier studies of the antimutagenic activity of green tea were to be effective in reduction chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, sister chromatid exchange (SCEs), gene forward mutation induced by various chemicals in both in vitro and in vivo system (Bhattacharya& Girl, 2012; Ito et al., 1989; Wang et al., 1989; Imanishi et al., 1991).