Normal sperm morphology and chromatin packaging: comparison between aniline blue and chromomycin
DAPI, DIPI, Hoechst 33258, and Hoechst 33342 bind to AT-rich regions whereas chromomycin
A mithramycin, and olivomycin bind to GC-rich regions.
Base-specifc fuorochrome staining using Chromomycin
A3 (CMA3) and 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) was used to detect GC- and AT-rich regions, respectively, while Distamycin A (DA) was added as counter stainer (Schweizer 1980).
AT-specific 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and GC-specific chromomycin
[A.sub.3] ([CMA.sub.3]) fluorochromes were used for differential staining to reveal AT-enriched heterochromatin patterns and GC-enriched heterochromatic clusters in the nuclear organizer regions (NORs) on chromosomes 1 and 6 in the Ae.
Alternatively, after staining with DAPI, further staining was performed with chromomycin
A3 (CMA) at a concentration of 0.5 [micro]g/mL, followed by mounting in glycerol.
In human, percentage of sperm stained positively with Chromomycin
A3, an indication of deprotamination, had a positively correlation with macrocephaly sperm .
Fluorescent chromosome banding to reveal the type, amount, size and distribution of Het was performed according to the triple staining technique (CDD) of Schweizer and Ambros (1994), using the fluorochromes chromomycin
A3 (CMA), distamycin A (DA) and 4-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI).
Pirarubicin ([IC.sub.50] = 0.6 [micro]M) and valrubicin ([IC.sub.50] = 1.9 [micro]M) were the most potent compounds in this group; aclarubicin hydrochloride, plicamycin, and the structurally related chromomycin
A3 were also active, whereas adriamycin hydrochloride was inactive.
Rutigliano et al., "The DNA-binding drugs mithramycin and chromomycin
are powerful inducers of erythroid differentiation of human K562 cells," British Journal of Haematology, vol.
In addition to the conventional staining, the chromosome preparations were also stained with chromomycin
([CMA.sub.3]) and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) fluorochromes  in order to identify regions rich in GC- or AT-, respectively.
Several tests such as TdT (terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase)-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, aniline blue straining, chromomycin
A3 and acridine orange (AO) staining have been described to determine the extent of DNA damage.