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see proteinprotein,
any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. Protein comprises approximately 50% of cellular dry weight.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



any of several complex proteins containing pigmented prosthetic (nonprotein) groups. The largest group of chromoproteins includes the enzymes catalase and peroxoidase and the respiratory pigments hemoglobin and myoglobin. This group of chromoproteins also includes the iron-containing hemoproteins, among which are the cytochromes, that is, the carriers of electrons in the processes of cell respiration and photosynthesis, and in hydroxylation systems. In many invertebrate animals the binding of oxygen is achieved by the hemoglobin-like proteins known as erythrocruorins. In the blood of certain poly-chaete worms, this function is performed by chlorocruorins.

The second group of chromoproteins consists of the respiratory pigments in the blood of invertebrates: hemerythrin, which contains non-heme iron, and hemocynanin, which contains copper. The third group of chromoproteins comprises enzymes whose prosthetic group consists of compounds derived from riboflavin—the flavoproteins, which are carriers of electrons and perform an important function in the oxidation-reduction reaction of all animal cells. Another chromoprotein is rhodopsin (visual purple), a pigment found in the retina that contains 11-cis retinal as its chromophore group.

The term “chromoprotein” is becoming obsolete in the above sense and is increasingly used to refer primarily to the respiratory pigments of the blood.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Any protein, such as hemoglobin, with a metal-containing pigment.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Working in the Great Barrier Reef and under tightly controlled conditions in the Coral Reef Laboratory of the University of Southampton, the team of researchers produced experimental evidence that the pink and purple chromoproteins can act as sunscreens for the symbiotic algae by removing parts of the light that might become otherwise harmful.
GFP-like chromoproteins as a source of far-red fluorescent proteins.
This superfamily is considered to include some proteins that fluoresce in colors other than green, some chromoproteins that do not fluoresce at all, and G2FP motif proteins, which are components of the extracellular matrix of most metazoans (6-9).