differences are likewise common in metaphase spreads, wherein the homolog positioned at the periphery of the spread is often measurably longer than its partner positioned in the center of the spread.
and Caspase-3 Activity Assays.
Scientists from Japan, Europe, and the US discuss the history of mitosis research and the model systems that have played a key role; how threads are produced through chromosome condensation
; how sister chromatids attach to each other and to the spindle apparatus; how the spindle microtubules nucleate, elongate, pause, and shrink; how kinetochores and centrosomes serve as anchor and control points; the biochemical elements that coordinate the main regulatory stages of entry into mitosis, sister chromatid separation, and mitotic exit; how cells can mis-segregate and unbalance the genome; the cellular changes that occur during cytokinesis; and the differences between mitosis and meiosis.
Miihlig et al., "Demystifying chromosome preparation and the implications for the concept of chromosome condensation
during mitosis," Cytogenetic and Genome Research, vol.
Condensins, proteins which play a major role in chromosome condensation
and DSB repair during prophase I, are also known to play a role .
This is caused by early onset of chromosome condensation
in the early G2 of the cell cycle (so it is called premature chromosome condensation
or PCC syndrome) and delayed decondensation in early G1-phase of the cell cycle.5
Phosphorylated H2A and H4 are found in mouse spermatogenesis, and correlates with both mitotic/meiotic chromosome condensation
and displacement of histone proteins from the nucleosome structure.
Makde, a postdoctoral member of the research team led by Tan, grew molecular crystals of the protein RCC1 (regulator of chromosome condensation
, a protein critical for proper separation of chromosomes during cell division) bound to the nucleosome, and used X-ray crystallography to determine the atomic structure of the complex.
For karyomorphological studies, metaphases were rigorously selected based on the level of chromosome condensation
. Slides were photographed using an Olympus photomicroscope (BX50) and Ilford black-and-white film 50 ASA.
Folate sensitive fragile site expression seems to appear as a result of heritable defects of DNA methylation along a region normally binding a folding protein involved in chromosome condensation
. Impairment of DNA-folding-protein interaction would result.
The karyotype formula reported here are quite different from that of Wang and Guo (2007), probably reflecting variations in chromosome condensation
and/or errors in pairing and measurement.