In all countries, especially in Pakistan, it was calculated that about 3% of the all population of the world has been contaminated by HCV and about 170 million are chronic carriers
of this brutal disease [2, 3].
If the mother is a chronic carrier
of HBV and HBeAg negative, there is a low transmission risk.
Comparison of HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR Alleles With Combined Frequencies of More Than 3% Between the Natural Convalescent (NC) and Chronic Carrier
(CC) Groups Frequency (%) in Patients With CC (n = 396 NC (n = 876 Allele Alleles) Alleles) P HLA-A 2 31.
These include developing a chronic carrier
state, fulminant hepatitis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma.
The danger associated with being a chronic carrier
of any hepatitis virus is the increased risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
2) Chronicity implies either recurrent episodes of GABHS or a chronic carrier
state of GABHS interspersed with overlapping viral pharyngitis.
The sub-committee looked at the various issues involved, namely the magnitude of the problem of hepatitis B in India, (specifically the chronic carrier
rate in the country and the number of deaths from the disease each year), the evidence supporting different vaccination schedules and finally the evidence of the success of the pilot project.
In the future, antigen detection will guide patient management decisions; therefore, the possibility of a human chronic carrier
state warrants study.
If the infant acquires hepatitis B infection from mother by vertical transmission, the infant becomes a chronic carrier
for hepatitis B infection throughout the life and chances of cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma are high.
A chronic carrier
of active hepatitis B who is HBeAg positive, for example, should be followed with HBeAg tests until a negative result suggests that the level of infectiousness has dropped.
represents their hypothesis about a human chronic carrier
state for WNV.
Hepatitis B vaccination and one dose of HBIG, administered within 24 hours after birth, are 85%-95% effective in preventing both HBV infection and the chronic carrier