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(1) The path followed by sea and air transport, such as a ship’s course.
(2) The direction of political, social, and other activity, such as a course of development of heavy industry.
(3) In Russian, a word (kurs) designating the value of a monetary unit of one country expressed in monetary units of another country (course or parity of exchange); in capitalist countries, the price at which stocks, bonds, notes, and other securities are bought and sold (kursovaia tsena).
(4) A year of study in higher or specialized secondary educational institutions (technicums); first course, second course, and so on.
(5) The exposition of a particular academic discipline or branch of knowledge within defined limits.
(6) A completed series of actions or procedures (a course of treatment).
(ship), the angle between the plane of the meridian and the center line of a vessel, reckoned in degrees from the northern part of the meridian clockwise (from 0° to 360°).
In the age of sailing, a course was read off in quarters of the horizon by degrees from the north and south in both directions up to 90° (for example: northeast 45°, southwest 60°) or was expressed in compass points. It is determined on a vessel by means of a gyrocompass or a magnetic compass. Because of the inherent errors in these instruments and the effect of the earth’s magnetic field on a magnetic compass, the direction of a compass meridian may differ from the geographic meridian, and there will be a corresponding difference between the compass course to which a vessel is holding and the true course as laid out on a chart. A compass course is obtained by taking the algebraic difference between the true course and the total correction computed from the elements in its composition, or by comparing the compass and true bearings of some objects (shore-based points or heavenly bodies). A vessel can be stabilized on a given course either manually or automatically; automatic stabilization relies on an automatic control system (autopilots). Navigation of sailing vessels uses the regular course terminology and also one based on the angle of the wind direction relative to the center line of the vessel. Such a course has various names depending on the value of this angle: close-hauled, beam reach, broad reach, and running.
B. P. KHABUR and A. A. IAKUSHENKOV
ii. The ILS (instrument landing system) localizer signal pattern, usually specified as front course or back course.
iii. The intended track along a straight, curved, or segmented microwave landing system path.