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Inflammation of the periodontium.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an acute or chronic inflammation of the periodontium and adjacent tissues. Periodontitis is usually a result of dental caries and arises as infection spreads from the root canal through the apical foramen to the apex of the root. It may also develop from frequently recurring injury to the tooth; this kind of injury can result from such occupational habits as biting thread or grasping metal nails with the teeth and from any habitual biting of hard objects, for example, pencils or the mouthpieces of pipes.

Acute periodontitis is manifested by sharp pain in the region of the tooth that intensifies when the inflamed area is touched. Swelling often occurs in the gums, lips, or cheeks, and the affected tooth becomes loose. The enlarged submaxillary lymph nodes become sensitive, and fever occasionally arises. The process may sometimes be complicated by osteomyelitis of the jaw, purulent inflammation of the soft tissues of the face and neck, and acute sepsis. Symptoms of chronic periodontitis usually include discomfort while chewing, halitosis, and sometimes fistulas on the gums and facial skin. Chronic periodontitis can lead to the formation of a cyst of the jaw, and both forms of periodontitis can sensitize the body to streptococci.

Treatment of periodontitis is usually conservative, consisting of filling the root canals. Often the tooth is removed. Abscesses are lanced, and antibiotics are used to treat pronounced general symptoms.


Groshikov, M. I. Periodontit. Moscow, 1964.
Marchenko, A. I. “Bolezni periodonta.” In Rukovodstvo po terapevticheskoi stomatologii. Moscow, 1967.
Ovrutskii, G. D., F. G. Gasimov, and S. V. Makarov. Bolezni zubov. Kazan, 1967.
Rybakov, A. I., and V. S. Ivanov. Klinika terapevticheskoi stomatologii. Moscow, 1973.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chronic periodontitis (CP) is one of the most common diseases prevalent throughout the world, and it is the main cause of tooth loss in the elderly (1,2).
(22) Assuming this, the sample size for all three cohorts (HC=non--periodontitis healthy controls, H+CP=healthy individuals with chronic periodontitis, T2DM+CP=type 2 diabetes patients with chronic periodontitis) enabled point estimates of the relative frequencies with 95% error margins that were less than 11% (HC: < 9.0%; H + CP: < 6.8%; T2DM + CP: < 10.5%).
Bagci, "Association of interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms with severe generalized chronic periodontitis," Journal of Periodontology, vol.
Effect of periodontal therapy on type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with chronic periodontitis with the evaluation of HbA1c.
Mustafa et al., "Impact of chronic periodontitis on levels of glucoregulatory biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid of adults with and without type 2 diabetes," PLoS One, vol.
[40] showed that plasmin plays an important role in preventing the development of chronic periodontitis in mice.
Using data from an extensive national health insurance screening program, investigators from Seoul National University in South Korea examined the relationship between chronic periodontitis and dementia.
The bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, known as Pg, causes the gum infection chronic periodontitis, causing chronic inflammation and potential loss of teeth, reported CNN.

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