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, an iron-magnesium silicate mineral, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, crystallizing in the orthorhombic system. It is a common constituent of magnesium-rich, silica-poor igneous rocks; metamorphism of some high magnesium sediments also can form olivine.
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a mineral; a transparent gem-quality green variety of olivine (seeOLIVINE), with a characteristic golden tint. Chrysolite contains at least 8–15 percent FeO, which is responsible for the mineral’s color. It occurs in the form of short-columnar or prismatic crystals. It is brittle, readily soluble in acid, and takes a good polish. A rare mineral, chrysolite is found primarily in kimberlites, alkaline olivine basalts, serpentinized peridotites, and ultrabasic alkali rocks; it is also found in alluvial deposits. Large crystals are primarily found on the island of Zeberged (St. John’s Island) in the Red Sea (Egypt). Chrysolite is also found in Burma, the United States (Arizona), the Republic of South Africa, and Tanzania. In the USSR it occurs in Yakutia and Krasnoiarsk Krai.
The term “chrysolite” was also formerly used in jewelry-making for other green precious stones, such as demantoid (a variety of garnet), greenish gold topaz, chrysoberyl, and vesuvianite.