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butter, dairy product obtained by churning the fat from milk until it solidifies. In most areas the milk of cows is the basis, but elsewhere that of goats, sheep, and mares has been used. Butter was known by 2000 B.C., although in ancient times it was used less as food than as an ointment, medicine, or illuminating oil. At first it was churned in skin pouches thrown back and forth or swung over the back of trotting horses. Later, various hand churns were devised, including rotating, swinging, and rocking containers operated by plungers. Butter-making on the farm consists of allowing the milk to cool in pans, letting the cream rise to the top, skimming the cream off, and letting it ripen by natural fermentation; it is then churned. Exclusively farm-made until about 1850, butter has become increasingly a factory product. The centrifugal cream separator, introduced into the United States c.1880, and a method devised in 1890 by Stephen Moulton Babcock to determine the butterfat content of milk and cream gave impetus to large-scale production. The application of chemistry and bacteriology facilitates the making of butter of uniform quality. The percentage of fat extraction and the time required for churning depend on the composition of the butterfat (see fats and oils); the temperature, acidity, richness, and viscosity of the cream; the speed and motion of the churn; and the size of the fat globules. Commercial butter usually contains from 80% to 85% milk fat, from 12% to 16% water, and about 2% salt. Sweet, or unsalted, butter is favored in Europe, but other markets prefer at least 2% salt. Renovated or process butter is made from rancid or inferior butter, melted and refined, then rechurned. Whey butter, made from cream separated from whey, is usually oily and of inferior quality. The natural color of butter, derived from the carotene in green fodder, ranges from pale yellow to deep gold. The European Union, with France, Germany, and the Netherlands leading the way, is the world's leading butter producer, followed by India, the United States, and Russia. The EU, New Zealand, Australia, and the United States are the chief exporters; and Russia and Great Britain are heavy importers. Wisconsin, California, and Minnesota are the leading producers in the United States, with an output of 1.3 billion pounds of butter in 1991. Clarified butter, butterfat with the milk solids removed, is useful in cooking and has good keeping qualities. It is made in quantity in Egypt and in India, where it is known as ghee. The dietary value of butter is due to its large proportion of easily digested animal fat and to its vitamin A and vitamin D content. Consumption of butter has dropped, however, because the high animal fat content has been identified as a contributor to obesity and heart disease.
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The frequency with which a building’s occupants are moved, either internally or externally, including those who move but stay within an organization and those who leave a company and are replaced.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

churn rate

(1) The percentage of customers who cancel their subscription service. The term often refers to cellphone contracts.

(2) The percentage of employees who leave the company during a certain time period. See churning.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Traditional gourd and mechanical churner butter samples were aseptically collected from the four locations (Kiboga1, Kiboga2, Kotido and Ngoma); previously described in detail by Sempiira et al.
The rules show that if the number of days between first and last play days is equal or less than 5 days; the maximum number of slot spins is equal or less than 840; and the amount of play bonus is equal or less than 192, then the model classifies the player into a churner group coded as "1".
The class imbalance problem [2,9] was solved in the way that precisely 2500 churners and 2500 non-churners entered the final data set, what is in line with results in [2].
[10.] Muyanja A, Kawongolo JB and WS Kisaalita A simple milk churner for ghee-making.
The Minneapolis Star Tribune's Amelia Rayno discussed several names on Wednesday, citing assistant athletic director Mike Ellis's ( previous work with head coach churner organization Villa 7.
It fell 45ft from the bridge over the River Churner near the park after a collision with a car in torrential rain.
Sarries are the division's leading try-scorers; in Dan Scarbrough they have the league's top yardage churner and break-maker as well as the third most accurate kicker, Glen Jackson, who just to underline the point has also contributed the most assists.
Also on In The Red is a gut churner of a seven from The Hunches.
AMSTERDAM Global production outfit Endemol has taken a 51% stake in Dutch mobile telephone content developer, producer and distributor Overloaded as it slowly shifts from a TV content churner to a multiplatform producer.
Mamasons makes fresh batches of ice cream using an old-school Italian gelato churner - a special import that took the team a long time to find.