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chyme (kīm), semiliquid substance found in the stomach and resulting from the partial digestion of food by the salivary enzyme amylase, the gastric enzyme pepsin, and hydrochloric acid. Secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach makes the chyme strongly acidic. The rhythmic muscular action of the stomach wall (peristalsis) moves the chyme into the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine, where it stimulates the release of secretin, a hormone that increases the flow of pancreatic juice as well as bile and intestinal juices. Chyme also stimulates the release of cholecystokinin, a hormone that primarily increases the flow of bile but also increases the proportion of digestive enzymes in the pancreatic juice.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the fluid or semifluid contents of the small intestine in animals and man, consisting of gastric digestive products mixed with bile, the secretions of the pancreas and intestinal glands, desquamated epithelium, and microorganisms. Chyme also contains enzymes of the pancreatic juice, such as proteases, α-amylase, and lipase, as well as intestinal enzymes, such as enterokinase, carbohydrases, peptidases, monoglyceride lipase, and phosphatase. Its composition depends on the food ingested and the secretory activity of the digestive system.

In man, about 400 g of chyme per day pass from the small intestine to the large intestine. The motor activity of the intestine agitates the chyme, thus promoting better digestion and absorption of food substances. Specially prepared chyme has therapeutic properties: it is used in certain digestive disorders and metabolic disturbances in agricultural animals.


Fiziologiia pishchevareniia. Leningrad, 1974. (Rukovodstvo pofisiologii.)


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The semifluid, partially digested food mass that is expelled into the duodenum by the stomach.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


the thick fluid mass of partially digested food that leaves the stomach
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The average moisture of the gastric chyme was calculated from the loss in weight of the sample after being dried for 24 h at 105[degrees]C.
coli strain in the intestinal content of the inoculated experimental animals and Escherichia (5-16 colonies on an average), enterococci (4-12), and lactobacteria (8-20 colonies) in the chyme of the inoculated control group animals were analyzed throughout the experiment.
It occurs due to insufficient mixing of chyme with bile salts and enzymes of gastrointestinal tract (pancreatic and intestinal disorders) e.g.
The arrangement of the muscle layers is functionally important, as it relates to its role in mixing chyme during the digestive process as well as to its ability to force the partially digested contents into the small intestine.
He implies this in the "chyme" passage and states it even more clearly in his "Essay on Shelley." Browning claims that, at certain points in history, when the staled success of a poetic predecessor still dominates the scene, the most vital poetic work involves "getting at new substance by breaking up the assumed wholes into parts of independent and unclassed value." In doing this, the new poet will "replace this intellectual rumination of food swallowed long ago, by a supply of the fresh and living swathe." Browning states explicitly that breaking up putative wholes is more important than putting the new parts together; the poet should be "careless of the unknown laws for recombining them (it will be the business of yet another poet to suggest those hereafter)." (17)
The main function of these glands is to produce a mucus rich alkaline secretion in order to protect the duodenum from the acidic content of chyme (which is introduced into the duodenum from the stomach), provide an alkaline condition for intestinal enzymes, lubrication of intestinal walls and for better absorption.
In addition, peristaltic flow occurs widely in the functioning of the ureter, chyme movement in the intestine, movement of eggs in the fallopian tube, the transport of the spermatozoa in cervical canal, transport of bile in the bile duct, transport of cilia, circulation of blood in small blood vessels, and the transport of intrauterine fluid within the cavity of the uterus.
In human body, peristalsis is found in the swallowing food through the esophagus, chyme motion in the gastrointestinal tract, vasomotion of small blood vessels such as venules, capillaries and arterioles, urine transport from kidney to bladder, and intrauterine fluid flow within the uterine cavity.
Chyme (the thick fluid bolus of partially digested food) entering the colon from the small intestine is propelled toward the rectum.
Thanks to Ben Foster whose choice of instruments hybridizes into a single merry mix that beautifully accommodates Chyme HD's verses and Ade Piper's chant.