cider


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cider,

in Europe, fermented juice of apples; in the United States, unfermented apple juice, unless allowed to ferment, in which case it is typically known as hard cider. Selected apples are grated in a mill, and the juice is expressed and, for hard cider, fermented and filtered. The commercial product is usually pasteurized or treated with preservatives and is frequently blended to balance the chief constituents, sugar, malic acid, and tannin. In France cider is made principally in Normandy and Brittany. It is at its best after a year or two in cask. English cider from the southern and western counties is noted and rivals beer as a popular alcoholic beverage. Cider is popular also in Germany, Spain, and Switzerland. Perry is a similar beverage made from pears.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cider

 

a low-alcohol (5–7 percent by volume) fruit wine obtained by the fermentation of apple juice. The characteristic qualities of cider are attributable to the taste and aroma of apples and to the saturation of the fermented beverage with carbon dioxide. Cider is generally made from late-season apples and may be sweet (sugar content, 10 g/l), semisweet (5 g/l), and dry (sugarless).

Cider originated in northern France, where it is the name given to any alcoholic beverage made from apples. It is consumed widely in Austria, Switzerland, Great Britain, and other countries. In the USSR, cider is produced in the RSFSR, Byelorussia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cider

[′sīd·ər]
(food engineering)
Juice extracted from apples or similar fruits that has not been subjected to processing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cider

, cyder
1. an alcoholic drink made from the fermented juice of apples
2. US and Canadian an unfermented drink made from apple juice
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

CIDR

(Classless Inter-Domain Routing) An expansion of the IP addressing system that allows for a more efficient and appropriate allocation of addresses. The original class-based method used fixed fields for network IDs, which was wasteful. For example, Class A and B networks can address 16 million and 65 thousand hosts respectively, and most organizations given those addresses never had intentions of putting that many computers on the Internet (see IP address for more details).

From Fixed to Variable
CIDR changed the fixed fields into variable-length fields, allowing addresses to be assigned with finer granularity. The CIDR IP address includes a number that tells how the address is split between networks and hosts. For example, in the CIDR address 204.12.01.42/18 the /18 indicates that the first 18 bits are used for network ID and the remaining 14 (there are 32 bits in the IP address) are used for host ID (see supernetting).

Routing Is More Manageable
Blocks of CIDR addresses have been given to ISPs, who in turn disseminate them to their customers, which may be end users or smaller ISPs. CIDR reduces the burden on Internet routers by aggregating routes so that one IP address represents all the thousands of customers serviced by a single ISP. All packets sent to any of those customer addresses are routed via the one IP address, requiring only one entry in the routing table. In 1990, there were about 2,000 routes on the Internet. By 1995, there were more than 30,000. Without CIDR, the routers on the Internet backbone would not have been able to support the increasing number of Internet hosts. See private IP address.

CIDR Prefixes
The following table shows the number of hosts allotted to each CIDR block. Note that the CIDR number /13, /14, etc. is called the CIDR "prefix" even though it is written at the end of the IP address. It is called the prefix because it represents the number of bits in the network ID, and the network ID is the "first" part of the IP address.

CIDR      Number ofPrefix    Hosts

     /13       524,288
     /14       262,144
     /15       131,072
     /16        65,536
     /17        32,768
     /18        16,384
     /19         8,192
     /20         4,096
     /21         2,048
     /22         1,024
     /23           512
     /24           256
     /25           128
     /26            64
     /27            32
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Rose cider has proven extremely popular in America, growing to be almost twice the size of the fruit cider category," said head of marketing Rob Salvesen.
The 'Orchard to Bottle' philosophy refers to the way Loxtonia Cider is brewed.
Neil Clapperton, who is behind the project, said: "We think it's possible that the north-east of Scotland has the biggest potential of all the new, emerging cider regions in the world, so this is a launch party too, for shire and city ciders and Common Weal Cider social enterprise, turning waste into pleasure."
This innovative cider, launched last year, uses Friels Vintage Cider as a base and blends it with natural raspberry juice and a mint and lime infusion.
This means the product is made in small batches, from whole fruit and natural ingredients, and by someone with a genuine passion and intimate knowledge of the apple, the orchard and the cider. And it's ethical.
Apple cider vinegar is made in a two-step process, related to how alcohol is made.
Herb's Cider opened its tasting room in Bellingham this fall and began production out of its own facility around the same time.
Hadsall had been brewing beer for about 12 years and King had been making cider for about four years.
Let me share with you some interesting information about apple cider vinegar as well as vinegar in general: (References: Various Internet reports and other publications)
Two local Ypsilanti business owners join efforts to create excitement in Ypsilanti by bringing out Michigan's craft cider brewers at the first annual West Cross Hard Cider Festival.
by Nada Farhoud CONSUMER FEATURES EDITOR FROM a thirst quencher for farmers to cheap booze for teenagers - cider's image has certainly changed over the years.