cinchona

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Related to cinchona bark: Cinchona officinalis, quinine

cinchona

(sĭngkō`nə) or

chinchona

(chĭngkō`nə), name for species of the genus Cinchona, evergreen trees of the maddermadder,
common name for the Rubiaceae, a family of chiefly tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and herbs, especially abundant in N South America. The family is important economically for several tropical crops, e.g., coffee, quinine, and ipecac, and for many ornamentals, e.g.
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 family native to the Andean highlands from Bolivia to Colombia and also to some mountainous regions of Panama and Costa Rica. The trees are now cultivated elsewhere for "Peruvian bark," the source of quininequinine
, white crystalline alkaloid with a bitter taste. Before the development of more effective synthetic drugs such as quinacrine, chloroquine, and primaquine, quinine was the specific agent in the treatment of malaria.
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. Quinine is still the drug of last resort in the treatment of malariamalaria,
infectious parasitic disease that can be either acute or chronic and is frequently recurrent. Malaria is common in Africa, Central and South America, the Mediterranean countries, Asia, and many of the Pacific islands.
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, but its commercial importance was greatly reduced after the development of synthetic analogs in the 1950s. Several species yield quinine and several other antimalarial alkaloids. The bark of the uprooted tree is beaten loose, peeled by hand, and dried quickly to prevent the loss of alkaloids. Final extraction is conducted in factories.

The trees were named in honor of the countess of Chinchón who, legend says, was cured of a fever in 1638 by a preparation of the bark. Supposedly, at her instigation the bark was collected for malaria sufferers and later exported to Spain. Native peoples, however, had long used it for medicinal purposes and this use was observed by Jesuit missionaries, who brought the bark to Europe. Cinchona is sometimes called Jesuits' bark because of the part the group played in its dispersal. So successful were the Dutch and English in transplanting cinchona to Java and India that until World War II these countries, especially Java, grew practically the entire commercial supply.

Cinchona is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class division Magnoliopsida, order Rubiales, family Rubiaceae.

Bibliography

See M. L. Duran-Reynals, The Fever Bark Tree (1946); P. E. Thompson and L. M. Werbel, Antimalarial Agents (1972); F. Rocco, The Miraculous Fever-Tree (2003).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cinchona

 

a genus of evergreen tree of the family Rubiaceae. The trees are 10–15 m tall (some up to 25 m). The leaves are opposite, leathery, and entire. The pentamerous, tubular flowers are in cymose umbels, gathered into panicles. The corolla is pink or yellowish white and has lobes that are pubescent on the limb. The fruit is a dehiscent, bilocular, many-seeded, elongate capsule.

There are about 40 species, distributed in South America between 10° N lat. and 19° S lat. The trees grow at elevations of 1,600–2,400 m above sea level in forests on the eastern slopes of the Andes (C. officinalis is found at elevations to 3,300 m above sea level). The bark and other parts of the cinchona tree contain quinine, cinchonine, and other alkaloids that have antimalarial, tonic, and antiseptic effects. Since the 17th century, the tree has been greatly exploited for the healing properties of its bark. Despite a ban on export, Europeans sent cinchona seeds and seedlings to Java and India, where plantations were established. As a result of selection, the alkaloid content in the bark was raised from 2–2.5 percent to 16 percent. Several species, including C. ledgeriana, C. officinalis, and C. succirubra, and numerous hybrid forms are cultivated. In the USSR the cinchona tree is cultivated as an annual crop on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus; cuttings and ovaries are preserved for the winter in hothouses. Cinchona culture is being curtailed as a result of the synthetic manufacture of its alkaloids.

REFERENCES

Atlas lekarstvennykh rastenii SSSR. Moscow, 1962.
Zhukovskii, P. M. Kul’turnye rasteniia i ikh sorodichi, 3rd ed. Leningrad, 1971.
Murav’eva, D. A., and A. F. Gammerman. Tropicheskie i subtropicheskie lekarslvennye rasteniia. Moscow, 1974.

S. S. MORSHCHIKHINA

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cinchona

[siŋ′kō·nə]
(botany)
The dried, alkaloid-containing bark of trees of the genus Cinchona.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cinchona

of Ecuador. [Flower Symbolism: WB, 7: 264]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cinchona

1. any tree or shrub of the South American rubiaceous genus Cinchona, esp C. calisaya, having medicinal bark
2. the dried bark of any of these trees, which yields quinine and other medicinal alkaloids
3. any of the drugs derived from cinchona bark
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In 1650, a large shipment of cinchona bark was sent to a Spanish Jesuit in Rome, Cardinal Juan de Lugo, who gave it to the pope's personal physician for testing.
Fresh cinchona bark could contain up to 80 percent of its weight in water--and no wonder, for it grew in the dean rain shadow, receiving lid to two hundred inches per year.
Rumors soon spread about cinchona bark. Some European courts, for example, prohibited its use, convinced that it was a Jesuit strategy to poison Protestants.
Furthermore, its apparently random performance depending on which cinchona bark the powder was made from--ignoring falsifications--led to the appearance of all types of ideas and interpretations.
Bisleri Company, which also produced a famous liqueur, Ferrochina Bisleri, probably an alcohol infusion of cinchona bark, herbs, and iron salts.
Even before the 1600s, the Peruvian Indians used an infusion of chinchona bark to treat fever, and soon it was recognised that cinchona bark was also effective at treating and preventing malaria.
Safe usage for these is not "sufficiently well established among qualified experts to permit a formal determination by FDA that they are generally recognized as safe." They include quinine, red and yellow cinchona barks, two forms of orris root ...