Muscles and tendons can be connected to external interfaces by employing the existing surgical technique of cineplasty [10-12].
In muscle tunnel cineplasty  or tendon external cineplasty , muscle and tendon forces can be transmitted externally from the body.
performed an experiment using cineplasty to control externally powered prostheses and achieved "good control of the prosthesis" .
Although the system should be connected to the human body, no patients with upper-limb amputation who had undergone cineplasty were available.
Our procedure was not strictly a cineplasty. We therefore call our piercing method "pseudo-cineplasty." Our system was operable using the small amount of force generated by the palmaris longus muscle, suggesting that other such small muscles could achieve similar results.
A similarly simple method may achieve results comparable with those of conventional cineplasty in people with upper-limb amputation.
In cineplasty, the system is connected to muscle and tendon via a skin tunnel.
I'm not aware it's been published before, but I've just discovered PATSY CLINE = CINEPLASTY
is in Webster's Second, where it's defined as the art of shaping a muscular stump following amputation."
Alternatives to EMG have been investigated for use in prosthetic control, including the mechanical force of muscles measured via a tunnel cineplasty
; the morphological changes of residual limb tissues ; the myokinemetric (MK) signal measured from the muscle dimensional change that is observable at the skin surface ; the mechanomyogram (MMG), which is detected from the sound signal generated by muscle contraction ; speech ; and the electroencephalogram .
Cineplasty is a method of operating an artificial hand or hook by the flexing of a muscle directly attached to cables.
Teams of researchers are currently investigating methods to improve the interface between the human anatomy and prosthetic devices far beyond cineplasty and myoelectric arms with surface electrodes.