Subcallosal cingulate gyrus
deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression.
Electrodes have been implanted in the subcallosal cingulate gyrus
, inferior thalamic peduncle, ventral capsule/ventral striatum, superolateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), and nucleus accumbens.
Brain MRI revealed diffuse signal alterations in the subcortical frontal and parietal white matter with global brain atrophy with diffusely thinned corpus callosum, and reduced anterior cingulate gyrus
Leftward lateralization was observed in the entorhinal cortex in MCI nonconverters from baseline to the last visit, as well as in the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus
in converters during all visits.
In the Results section, the sentence "According to FDGPET, FDG uptake was significantly lower in the cingulate gyrus
and medial thalamus in Group A (50 patients) compared with Group B (40 patients) and lower in the medial thalamus compared with the control group (Figure 2)" should be changed to "According to FDG-PET, FDG uptake was significantly lower in the cingulate gyrus
and medial thalamus in Group A (50 patients) compared with the control group and lower in the medial thalamus compared with Group B (40 patients) (Figure 2)."
Furthermore, HT7 stimulation as compared with the LI5 stimulation produced a higher BOLD signal response in the bilateral precuneus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, right middle occipital gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus
, medial frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus
, paracentral lobule, left superior temporal gyrus, and thalamus.
Using T1- and T2-weighted structural MRI scans, the researchers measured the cortical thickness of six individual regions of the frontal lobe as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus
. The patient and control groups resembled one another in terms of education, IQ, and age, but 71% of patients with late-life depression were female, compared with only 50% of controls.
150 years later, Damasio and his collaborators published a study on Gage's exhumed skull and proposed a trajectory of the injury through the left hemisphere, through the anterior half of the orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 11 and 12), through the anterior mesial frontal cortices (Brodmann areas 8 to 10, 32) and the most anterior region of the cingulate gyrus
(Brodmann area 24).
Of these connections, three had P values less than 0.001, including the connections between the paracentral gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus
in the left hemisphere, between the posterior cingulate gyrus
and superior frontal lobe in the right hemisphere, and between the posterior cingulate gyrus
and paracentral gyrus in the right hemisphere.
Whole brain blood flow also improved significantly in the exercise group and was driven by increased flow in regions particularly associated with aging and Alzheimer's: the superior frontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and cingulate gyrus
Obese women have higher rates of metabolism in certain areas of the brain, including the posterior cingulate gyrus
, which is linked to the development of AD.