cingulum

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cingulum

[′sin·gyə·ləm]
(anatomy)
The ridge around the base of the crown of a tooth.
(botany)
The part of a plant between stem and root.
(invertebrate zoology)
Any girdlelike structure.
A band of color or a raised line on certain bivalve shells.
The outer zone of cilia on discs of certain rotifers.
The clitellum in annelids.
(neuroscience)
The tract of association nerve fibers in the brain, connecting the callosal and the hippocampal convolutions.
References in periodicals archive ?
The anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) has been linked to monitoring task performance and the modulation of arousal during cognitively demanding tasks.
In contrast, semantic criterion seems to be more closely associated with areas of the right brain hemisphere, particularly the ventromedial frontal area and the cingulated gyrus (Thompson-Schill, Farah, Desposito, & Aguirre, 1997).
They suggested that older adults' greater difficulty in identifying negative facial expressions of anger might be primarily related to their decline in the orbitofrontal cortex; their difficulty in identifying sadness might be related to their decline in the cingulated cortex and amygdala; finally, their difficulty in identifying fear might be driven by their decline in the amygdala.
These studies suggest that the limbic system, including the amygdale, hippocampus, and some of the anterior cingulated cortex may be involved with both emotional states and depression (Gotlieb & Hamilton, 2008; Ochsner & Gross, 2008).
Interrelations between orbital gyrus, insula, temporal tip and anterior cingulated.
Both feature cortical inhibition as revealed by slowed EEG theta waves and both show higher levels of activity in areas where theta is prominent, such as the frontal cortex and especially the anterior cingulated cortex.
The other regions activated were related to emotion and reward and included areas deep in the brain called the insula and the cingulated cortex.
Four of these circuits have generated particular interest: (1) the reward circuit, which is located in the nucleus accumbens; (2) the motivational and drive circuit, which is located in the orbitofrontal cortex; (3) the memory and learning circuit, which is located in the amygdala and the hippocampus; and (4) the control circuit, which is located in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulated gyrus (Iancu et al.
In the study, higher food addiction scores corresponded to greater activation in the anterior cingulated cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and amygdala in response to anticipated food.
Furthermore, Buckholtz's study found that regions of the brain associated with strong emotions--amygdala, PFC and posterior cingulated cortex--play a significant role in determining how severely to punish a norm violator.
Apparently, the dorsal anterior cingulated cortex controls our perseverance threshold, instinctively telling us when to abandon an activity or plan.