Previous investigators have reported that direct electrical stimulation of other parts of the brain can trigger laughter, but the demonstration that anti-anxiety effects observed with cingulum
bundle stimulation can provide meaningful clinical benefits make this study distinct, says senior author Jon T, Willie, MD, PhD, who performed the surgeries reported in the paper.
Moreover, among associative WM tracts in the frontal lobe, the anterior cingulum
bundle is adjacent to the motor cortex, and its microstructural damage in ALS has been hypothesized to be related to the pattern of corticofugal disease spreading [67, 68].
We found disrupted connectivity within the DMN, particularly between the PCC (seed region) and regions of the prefrontal cortex including frontal pole, paracingulate gyrus, and superior temporal gyrus as well as the middle temporal gyrus and the cingulum
Evidence for fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity white matter abnormalities in the internal capsule and cingulum
in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Analysis of damaged axons focused on the cingulum
, under the impact site, to image axons in cross-section for more accurate quantification (Figures 6(b), 6(c), and 6(d)).
These lower FA values in PD were also associated with changes in other diffusivity indices, including the following: (1) increased MD and RD values in the left parietal WM, left cingulum
, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus of the left occipital and right parietal lobe; (2) increased RD values in the forceps minor of the right frontal lobe and superior longitudinal fasciculus of the left frontal lobe; (3) reduced AD values in the left middle cerebellar peduncle; (4) increased MD, AD, and RD values in the midbrain.
The WM bundles that have been most frequently observed to be affected in SZ include the corpus callosum (CC), anterior cingulum
(AC), uncinate fasciculus (UF), fornix (FX), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) [14-18].
Rhona MacLeod's forensic work reveals the red plaited silk cord used to hang Leila is a cingulum
, a Wiccan artefact used in sex magic.
The basal cingulum
is continuous but weak buccally and strong lingually.
Diagnosis--The largest species of Postcopemys based on its brachydont bunodont molars; also bears the following unique character combination: median mure connected to protocone on M1; m1 with a wide and strongly bilobed procingulum; ectolophid and ectostylid on m1 present; mesolophid well-developed on m1, but short in m2 and not extending to the lingual cingulum