The Occurrence, Metabolism and Toxicity of Cinnamic Acid
A simple, reliable, and accurate method using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprinting with a diode array detector (DAD) was developed for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analyses of the thirteen biomarkers: ephedrine, methyl gallate, catechin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, benzoic acid, liquiritin, liquiritin apioside, 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloyl glucose (PGG), cinnamic acid
, glycyrrhizin, schisandrin, and 6-shogaol in SCRT.
coli 0111: B4), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), sulfanilamide, N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylenediamine dihydrochloride, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), harpagoside, cinnamic acid
, and TAK-242 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St.
Our results have showed that propolis from this region contain flavonoids in higher ratio than the other common bioactive compounds such as hydrocarbons, aliphatic acids and their esters, cinnamic acids
and their esters, alcohols and terpenes, aromatic acids and ketones.
also reduces blood-glucose levels in a dose-dependent manner in non-obese type 2 diabetic rats: the improvement by 10 mg/kg of cinnamic acid
has been comparable to that of the sulphonylurea glibenclamide (5 mg/kg); furthermore, in vitro it significantly enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in isolated pancreas islets (Hafizur et al.
The antibacterial activity exerted by both extracts might be attributed to the presence of bioactive constituents such as catechin, rutin and apigenin, gallic acid, gentisic acid cinnamic acids
detected by HPLC-TOF/MS.
To a stirred solution of cinnamic acid
(400 mg, 2.76 mmol) in 4 mL anhydrous C[H.sub.2][Cl.sub.2] at 0[degrees]C and under argon was added 3-4 drops of anhydrous DMF followed by dropwise addition of oxalyl chloride (700 mg, 5.52 mmol, 2eq.).
Onciu, "A novel approach in cinnamic acid
synthesis: direct synthesis of cinnamic acids
from aromatic aldehydes and aliphatic carboxylic acids in the presence of boron tribromide," Molecules, vol.
PVA-1799, degree of polymerization and saponification are 1700 and 99%, respectively) was purchased from Sinopec Sichuan vinylon works, China, p-chlorosubstituted cinnamic acid
was purchased from Huzhou N.
Effects of caffeic acid and cinnamic acid
on glucose uptake in insulin-resistant mouse hepatocytes.
For instance, a tree can convert the amino acid phenylalanine into cinnamic acid
, a precursor to compounds thought to be important to the tree's defense system.
Beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, caffeic acid, cinnamic acid
, ferulic acid, quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol are among cauliflower's key antioxidant phytonutrients.