This double refraction of the circular polarized waves is also called circular birefringence from where the optical rotation is derived, as it rotates the plane of polarization of the polarized waves.
The wedge design of these 3D triple helices is implemented to observe the circular birefringence. It has been found that these triple helices can generate wide splitting angle waves with low loss.
The RCP and LCP waves propagate through these triple helix stacks with a different refractive index stating circular birefringence. For instance, at 2.01 GHz, [n.sub.+] is 3.79 with the transmission amplitude of -1.96dB, and [n.sub.-] is -1.09 with the RCP amplitude of -3.03 dB.