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Logic (of arguments) futile because the truth of the premises cannot be established independently of the conclusion



an order issued by a state organ or public body or a clarification of the procedure for applying an act. A circular is distributed to subordinate institutions and organizations and generally deals with one or more problems of an official nature. Until 1936, in the USSR a circular was an official act promulgated by the head of a people’s commissariat.

References in periodicals archive ?
The reduction in moisture content during the drying causes reduction in the bulk density, true density, thousand-grain mass, circularity, sphericity and projected and surface areas.
T able (4-8) shows the regression coefficients for MRR, TWR, Circularity and Cylindricity and corresponding P-values.
1 and 6, as the circularity index of the as-spun fibers is increased with increased in DMF content, the surface morphology exhibits an increased surface smoothness along with smaller striations on the fiber surface.
In response, the defender of the circularity objection might suggest that the above solution is of limited value, since "informal institutions are limited in their ability to scale up", i.
Authors, practitioners and teachers recognize the existence of the Circularity Problem and their proposed solutions range from iterative processes either manual ("Rolling WACC") or automated (using a spreadsheet), to using a target leverage or assuming constant WACC (1).
This Article questions the prevailing view that securities-fraud-on-the-market class actions alleging violations of Rule 10b-5 ("securities-fraud actions") are fatally flawed because they suffer from a circularity problem.
To the objection that externalism approves of epistemic circularity, Bergmann offers a pair of arguments that the relevant kind of epistemic circularity is benign; he also offers an important diagnosis of why all epistemically circular arguments appear problematic; and he suggests that we have noninferential knowledge of the reliability of some belief forming processes.
The end of Part I sets up further exploration of the notion of pedagogical circularity in twentieth-century literature and literary criticism.
Positioning accuracy is 8[micro], repeatability is 4[micro], and circularity is 2.
Even as individual lines and phrases achieve a luminous clarity, there remains a brooding circularity to Tall If, in part the apprehension of mortality at mid-life but in part something stranger.
The circularity of Rios's narrative is evident in almost every chapter/story: the first, "Historia de Mortes" begins with the arrival of a stranger, and we trace his passage through the town until he reaches his own, inconclusive death.