Each participant performed maximum voluntary circumduction of the right thumb four times, twice in a clockwise (CW) direction (as viewed from proximal to distal) and twice in a counterclockwise (CCW) direction, at a self-preferred speed, while stiffening the MC[P.sub.1] and I[P.sub.1] joints as much as possible.
As the participants were performing the thumb circumduction movements, a five-camera Vicon 250 optoelectronic motion capture system (Oxford Metrics Ltd., Oxford, UK) recorded the reflective marker trajectories at a sampling frequency of 120 Hz.
In most of the prosthetic hands described in this article, the thumb is actuated in flexion/extension (simple closing or opening) and along the circumduction
Furthermore, these features may also help in circumduction
motions of the manus during wing beats.
Dynamic analysis of wrist circumduction
: A new application of the biaxial flexible electrogoniometer.
That is, the patient receives a 2 (near normal performance) on the four easiest items (elbow flexion, shoulder adduction with internal rotation, finger mass flexion, and scapular elevation) and a mixture of 0, 1, or 2 ratings (unable to perform, partial performance, and near normal performance, respectively) on the next 14 items (e.g., forearm pronation, elbow extension, and pronation/ supination with elbow at 90[degrees]), and a 0 (unable to perform) on the 12 most difficult items (e.g., shoulder flexion to 180[degrees], hook grasp, and wrist circumduction
Compensatory gait patterns include increased upper-body lateral sway, ankle plantar flexion of the contralateral foot (vaulting), hip elevation during swing phase (hip hike), or leg circumduction
This is performed with the arm abducted to 90[degrees], 300 of anterior circumduction
, and internal rotation with thumb downward.
Patients usually try to compensate for this lack of toe clearance by circumduction
of the lower limb [106,108], pelvic tilt on the paretic side [106,109], and trunk lateral flexion toward the nonparetic side .
Motions of flexion, extension, horizontal abduction, adduction and circumduction
. If the patient experiences back pain from bending over prone position can be used.
Assessment Time Point Measure Rehab 6 Month 1 Year 2 Year Romberg Test Normal 42.6 90.0 84.8 88.0 Abnormal 17.8 8.0 11.1 8.0 Not Testable 39.6 2.0 4.0 4.0 Tandem Gait Normal 26.7 67.0 69.3 71.3 Loss of Balance 26.7 27.0 25.7 24.8 Not Testable 46.5 6.0 5.0 4.0 Hemiparetic Gait Normal 46.5 83.0 85.1 88.1 Circumduction
12.9 14.0 11.9 10.9 Not Testable 40.6 3.0 3.0 1.0 Rehab = during inpatient rehabilitation.
However, walking with a locked knee for the entire gait cycle requires specific gait compensations, including hip hiking, vaulting, and circumduction
, to create sufficient toe clearance during swing phase [1-3].