cirrhosis

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Related to cirrhotic: Hepatic cirrhosis

cirrhosis

(sərō`səs), degeneration of tissue in an organ resulting in fibrosis, with nodule and scar formation. The term is most often used in relation to the liver, because that organ is most often involved in cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of the liver interferes with the liver's metabolism of nutrients, detoxification of the blood, bile production, and other normal functions (see liverliver,
largest glandular organ of the body, weighing about 3 lb (1.36 kg). It is reddish brown in color and is divided into four lobes of unequal size and shape. The liver lies on the right side of the abdominal cavity beneath the diaphragm.
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); its damage is irreversible.

The most prevalent form of cirrhosis of the liver, portal cirrhosis, appears most often in middle-aged males with a history of chronic alcoholismalcoholism,
disease characterized by impaired control over the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Alcoholism is a serious problem worldwide; in the United States the wide availability of alcoholic beverages makes alcohol the most accessible drug, and alcoholism is the most
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 and is caused in part by protein deficiency (specifically choline), a type of malnutrition common in alcoholics. Protein deprivation is also responsible for kwashiorkorkwashiorkor
, protein deficiency disorder of children. It is prevalent in overpopulated parts of the world where the diet consists mainly of starchy vegetables, particularly in sections of Africa, Central and South America, and S Asia.
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, a nutritional deficiency with symptoms resembling those of cirrhosis of the liver. A major cause of cirrhosis worldwide is infection by the hepatitishepatitis
, inflammation of the liver. There are many types of hepatitis. Causes include viruses, toxic chemicals, alcohol consumption, parasites and bacteria, and certain drugs.
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 B virus. Biliary cirrhosis is a type caused by disruption of bile flow and is more common in women. Other causes include schistosomiasisschistosomiasis
, bilharziasis
, or snail fever,
parasitic disease caused by blood flukes, trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma. Three species are human parasites: S. mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium.
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 and hemochromatosis, a hereditary iron storage disease.

Failure of liver function results in ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity), increased albumin and blood protein, gastrointestinal disturbances, bleeding, emaciation, portal hypertension, enlargement of the liver and spleen, jaundice, edemaedema
, abnormal accumulation of fluid in the body tissues or in the body cavities causing swelling or distention of the affected parts. Edema of the ankles and lower legs (in ambulatory patients) is characteristic of congestive heart failure, but it can accompany other
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, and obstruction of the venous circulation with distention of the veins. It is not uncommon for greatly distended veins in the esophagus to rupture and cause massive hemorrhage. Treatment is first aimed at any reversible underlying disease. Supportive measures include avoidance of alcohol, a diet with adequate protein, vitamin supplements, transfusions to replace any blood loss, and removal of accumulated fluid. Beta-blockersbeta-blocker
or beta-adrenergic blocking agent
, drug that reduces the symptoms connected with hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, migraine headaches, and other disorders related to the sympathetic nervous system.
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, such as propranolol, have been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of gastrointestinal bleeding, one of the most lethal complications of cirrhosis.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cirrhosis

 

cicatricial shrinkage and deformity of an organ caused by infectious diseases, poisonings, metabolic disturbances, and other factors. Cirrhosis mostly affects parenchymatous organs, for example, the liver (which acquires a yellowish color as a result), the kidneys (nephrocirrhosis), and lungs (interstitial pneumonia). The morphological manifestations of cirrhosis include degeneration and necrosis of parenchymatous elements, distorted regeneration, diffuse proliferation of connective tissues (sclerosis), and structural reorganization and deformity of the organ. Chronic functional insufficiency of the affected organ is one of the main clinical symptoms. Since the proliferation of connective tissues may be due to a variety of factors, a distinction is made between postnecrotic, inflammatory, angiogenic, and metabolic forms of cirrhosis. The disease is believed to be reversible in its early stages.

V. V. SEROV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cirrhosis

[sə′rō·səs]
(medicine)
A progressive, inflammatory disease of the liver characterized by a real or apparent increase in the proportion of hepatic connective tissue.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cirrhosis

any of various progressive diseases of the liver, characterized by death of liver cells, irreversible fibrosis, etc.: caused by inadequate diet, excessive alcohol, chronic infection, etc.
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Esophageal varices have proven to be an endoscopic parameter of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients.
The calculated risk of HCC in cirrhotic patients was 4.7 times higher compared to non-cirrhotic patients (adjusted HR=4.73, 95% CI, 3.34-6.68).16
It is known that the main factors posing a bleeding risk in cirrhotic patients with EV are a high Child class (Child B and C), the presence of large varices (Grade 3 or 4), F3 varices, and presence of red color signs (Cherry red spots, hematocystic spots, and red wale markings).
On visual inspection of the livers of the patients, the tumor nodules could not be distinguished from the cirrhotic nodules; it differed from the presentation of plurinodular HCC which matched the imaging characteristics.[4] Under the microscope, the HCC nests, cirrhotic nodules, and regenerative nodules were mixed.
Recognition of cirrhotic cardiomyopathy will depend on a high level of awareness for this syndrome and potentially will help better manage patients with cirrhosis.
In cirrhotic patients, variceal bleeding has been studied by many researchers, however, 30 to 40% of cirrhotic patients who bleed may have nonvariceal sources, and the hemorrhage is frequently caused by gastro-duodenal ulcers.
Epidemiology of peptic ulcer disease in cirrhotic patients: role of Helicobacter pylori infection.
The two groups of cirrhotic patients (with and without PVT) were comparable in terms of age, INR, and platelet count.
Our study also showed that the presence of PHE does not correlate with the presence or the absence of the EV, portal hypertension gastropathy, or gastric varices in cirrhotic patients (Table 2).
The selection criteria included cirrhotic patients, both genders, admitted to hospital for AVB, without MHE assessed by the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) and critical flicker frequency (CFF) or OHE according to West-Haven criteria [20].
In this retrospective study, a total of 20 diagnosed alcoholic cirrhotic patients (stage 3 to 4 fibrosis according to clinical practice guidelines [3,29]) and 5 healthy controls were analyzed during liver transplantation from the Liver Tissue Cell Distribution System, University of Minnesota (Minneapolis, MN), between 2006 and 2011 [30].
Patients were categorized as cirrhotic and noncirrhotic types, with a further subclassification of the non-cirrhotic type into acute and chronic PVT, depending on the image of cavernoma transformation (formation of collateral blood vessels) or evidence of PH including splenomegaly and esophageal varices, as features of chronic PVT.