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a person’s affiliation with a given state, as a result of which he is covered by the rights and duties established by the legislation of the state with the assurance of state protection for his rights. In states with a monarchical form of government the term “subject” is used.

The procedure for acquiring or losing citizenship is regulated by the legislation of each state. As a rule, the legislation of all states distinguishes between the acquisition of citizenship by birth (filiation) and by naturalization. In deciding the question of the acquisition of citizenship by birth, two principles are used. The first is the national principle—the so-called blood right (jus sanguinis), according to which a child’s citizenship depends on the parents’ citizenship, regardless of the place of birth. Under the territorial principle—the so-called right of the soil (jus soli), citizenship is based on the place of birth and is not connected to the parents’ citizenship. The legislation of most bourgeois states combines these two principles with the observance of certain mandatory conditions.

In the socialist countries existing laws on citizenship provide for full equality of citizens, regardless of race or nationality, and equal rights for men and women. When citizenship is given by birth, the principle of blood right is applied. If one of the child’s parents is a foreigner, citizenship is usually determined by agreement between the parents.

In the USSR a single union citizenship has been established: every citizen of a union republic is a citizen of the USSR, and citizens of one union republic enjoy equal rights with the citizens of another union republic when they are on its territory. Soviet citizenship is granted to foreigners who petition for it by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR or by the presidium of the supreme soviet of the union republic in which they reside. Renunciation of Soviet citizenship can be authorized only by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. When parents change their citizenship, either becoming Soviet citizens or renouncing their Soviet citizenship, the citizenship of their children who have not reached 14 years of age is changed accordingly. The citizenship of children 14 to 18 years old cannot be changed without their consent.

The marriage of a male or female citizen of the USSR to a person who is not a Soviet citizen does not entail a change of citizenship. Deprivation of Soviet citizenship can occur only by the issuing in each case of a special decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR or by sentence of a court in instances provided for under the law.

Persons who are residing in the USSR but who are not citizens of the USSR and do not have corroboration of their citizenship in another state are considered persons without citizenship. They have the same rights and duties as citizens of the USSR, except the right to vote, the right to be elected, and the military obligation.

Questions of changing citizenship in other socialist countries are regulated according to similar principles.


Shevtsov, V. S. Sovetskoe grazhdanstvo. Moscow, 1965.
Chernichenko, S. V. Mezhdunarodno-pravovye voprosy grazhdanstva. Moscow, 1968.


References in periodicals archive ?
Let us continue to work for the betterment and empowerment of our communities in building a well-informed and well-empowered citizenry.
Imtiaz Gul Executive Director CRSS said that the idea of counter-radicalization initiative PACE was to reach out to the potential opinion multipliers and induce them into critical thinking through a discourse anchored in fundamental global values such as socio-political diversity, acceptance of diversity, rule of law and equal citizenry.
Yet history insists that Roman governors were powerful and had no reason to fear the local citizenry, nor were they particularly motivated to render just judgments.
During this time he was involved in two gunfights, and killed both of his opponents, but the victims were other badmen and the killings failed to arouse the citizenry.
When the James-Younger Gang tried to rob Northfield's bank, the citizenry turned against them so fast that two members of the outlaws were killed moments later, and ultimately only Jesse and Frank James escaped the posses, their power broken for the rest of history.
In pre-modern Castile, the community dictated the criteria of inclusion and exclusion, and subjectivity arose in the person as an equal among the citizenry.
Virtually the entire country is against the abuse of eminent domain by the NLDC, but its actions demonstrate that it could not care less what it has done to the rights of the citizenry and reputation of New London," noted Dana Berliner, another Institute senior attorney.
Key highlights of these projects demonstrate how the NIEHS science education program is working to prepare the next generation of scientifically literate and scientifically engaged citizenry.
Higher education, especially a liberal arts education, increases human capital formation by amplifying cognitive, verbal, and mathematical capacities, and by positively influencing attitudes, values, and behaviors in ways that make for a broadly educated citizenry (Pandey, Zhan, Neeley-Barnes, & Menon, 2000, pp.
Known as the Restriction of Hazardous Substances, the laudable directives are intended to protect Europe's citizenry against the dangerous substances potentially leaching into water supplies when aging and discarded components are put into landfills.
The land of Illmoor, filled with towns called Phlegm and Dullitch, is not for the faint-hearted traveler; but it has its charms, since most of the citizenry is so ineffectual at their thieving and wickedness as to be laughable.
Mandating any MP to vote in accordance with the Prime Minister's wishes on an issue which involves and is in opposition to one or more of the principles upon which the nation is founded, strips the citizenry of the right to representation in accordance with those principles.

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