citizenship


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Related to citizenship: Dual citizenship

citizenship

see CITIZEN.

Citizenship

 

a person’s affiliation with a given state, as a result of which he is covered by the rights and duties established by the legislation of the state with the assurance of state protection for his rights. In states with a monarchical form of government the term “subject” is used.

The procedure for acquiring or losing citizenship is regulated by the legislation of each state. As a rule, the legislation of all states distinguishes between the acquisition of citizenship by birth (filiation) and by naturalization. In deciding the question of the acquisition of citizenship by birth, two principles are used. The first is the national principle—the so-called blood right (jus sanguinis), according to which a child’s citizenship depends on the parents’ citizenship, regardless of the place of birth. Under the territorial principle—the so-called right of the soil (jus soli), citizenship is based on the place of birth and is not connected to the parents’ citizenship. The legislation of most bourgeois states combines these two principles with the observance of certain mandatory conditions.

In the socialist countries existing laws on citizenship provide for full equality of citizens, regardless of race or nationality, and equal rights for men and women. When citizenship is given by birth, the principle of blood right is applied. If one of the child’s parents is a foreigner, citizenship is usually determined by agreement between the parents.

In the USSR a single union citizenship has been established: every citizen of a union republic is a citizen of the USSR, and citizens of one union republic enjoy equal rights with the citizens of another union republic when they are on its territory. Soviet citizenship is granted to foreigners who petition for it by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR or by the presidium of the supreme soviet of the union republic in which they reside. Renunciation of Soviet citizenship can be authorized only by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. When parents change their citizenship, either becoming Soviet citizens or renouncing their Soviet citizenship, the citizenship of their children who have not reached 14 years of age is changed accordingly. The citizenship of children 14 to 18 years old cannot be changed without their consent.

The marriage of a male or female citizen of the USSR to a person who is not a Soviet citizen does not entail a change of citizenship. Deprivation of Soviet citizenship can occur only by the issuing in each case of a special decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR or by sentence of a court in instances provided for under the law.

Persons who are residing in the USSR but who are not citizens of the USSR and do not have corroboration of their citizenship in another state are considered persons without citizenship. They have the same rights and duties as citizens of the USSR, except the right to vote, the right to be elected, and the military obligation.

Questions of changing citizenship in other socialist countries are regulated according to similar principles.

REFERENCES

Shevtsov, V. S. Sovetskoe grazhdanstvo. Moscow, 1965.
Chernichenko, S. V. Mezhdunarodno-pravovye voprosy grazhdanstva. Moscow, 1968.

N. P. FARBEROV

References in periodicals archive ?
A judicial decision that entered into legal force established a legal fact of a man reporting knowingly false information when he was admitted to the citizenship of the Russian Federation, which was expressed in the absence of information about the citizenship of another state.
He said based on the consultations and advice given to his ministry, he had decided to change cause from pursuing the Citizenship Amendment Bill, which was to introduce dual citizenship in restricted circumstances.
Informally, as the most common reason for renouncing their citizenship, people stated the claims to own property, to facilitate travel, to facilitate studying abroad, to have a more secure working status, and so on,' it was explained.
The SC explained that once Philippine citizenship is renounced because of naturalization in a foreign country, one cannot be considered a Filipino citizen unless and until his or her allegiance to the Republic of the Philippines is reaffirmed.
According to law, a foreign national is required to have 12 consecutive work permit stamps to be able to apply for citizenship.
The 1935 Constitution, in force when Cayetano was born in 1970, allowed those with a Filipino mother and a non-Filipino father to choose Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority.
At the international level, the literature on citizenship is thus well and alive, and contributions by political sociologists figure prominently in it.
Romanians (24,300 persons) and Poles (16,100) were the two largest groups of EU citizens acquiring citizenship of another EU Member State.
At the EU level, 89 % of those granted EU citizenship came from countries outside the EU.
Even the Punjab government had recommended her case to the Union Ministry of Home Affairs but she was neither granted Indian citizenship nor a temporary visa for Pakistan.
She also considers the rights to citizenship and political membership claimed by queer bodies and an examination of "new" and alternative forms of citizenship, such as denizenship, urban citizenship, diasporic citizenship, and Indigenous citizenship.

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