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a person’s affiliation with a given state, as a result of which he is covered by the rights and duties established by the legislation of the state with the assurance of state protection for his rights. In states with a monarchical form of government the term “subject” is used.

The procedure for acquiring or losing citizenship is regulated by the legislation of each state. As a rule, the legislation of all states distinguishes between the acquisition of citizenship by birth (filiation) and by naturalization. In deciding the question of the acquisition of citizenship by birth, two principles are used. The first is the national principle—the so-called blood right (jus sanguinis), according to which a child’s citizenship depends on the parents’ citizenship, regardless of the place of birth. Under the territorial principle—the so-called right of the soil (jus soli), citizenship is based on the place of birth and is not connected to the parents’ citizenship. The legislation of most bourgeois states combines these two principles with the observance of certain mandatory conditions.

In the socialist countries existing laws on citizenship provide for full equality of citizens, regardless of race or nationality, and equal rights for men and women. When citizenship is given by birth, the principle of blood right is applied. If one of the child’s parents is a foreigner, citizenship is usually determined by agreement between the parents.

In the USSR a single union citizenship has been established: every citizen of a union republic is a citizen of the USSR, and citizens of one union republic enjoy equal rights with the citizens of another union republic when they are on its territory. Soviet citizenship is granted to foreigners who petition for it by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR or by the presidium of the supreme soviet of the union republic in which they reside. Renunciation of Soviet citizenship can be authorized only by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. When parents change their citizenship, either becoming Soviet citizens or renouncing their Soviet citizenship, the citizenship of their children who have not reached 14 years of age is changed accordingly. The citizenship of children 14 to 18 years old cannot be changed without their consent.

The marriage of a male or female citizen of the USSR to a person who is not a Soviet citizen does not entail a change of citizenship. Deprivation of Soviet citizenship can occur only by the issuing in each case of a special decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR or by sentence of a court in instances provided for under the law.

Persons who are residing in the USSR but who are not citizens of the USSR and do not have corroboration of their citizenship in another state are considered persons without citizenship. They have the same rights and duties as citizens of the USSR, except the right to vote, the right to be elected, and the military obligation.

Questions of changing citizenship in other socialist countries are regulated according to similar principles.


Shevtsov, V. S. Sovetskoe grazhdanstvo. Moscow, 1965.
Chernichenko, S. V. Mezhdunarodno-pravovye voprosy grazhdanstva. Moscow, 1968.


References in periodicals archive ?
4) It appears that civic duty plays a significant role in Denmark's political culture for all age groups.
also reflects the civic duty to concern one's self with the common good.
In both cases, my central hypothesis is that the stronger the school's civic climate, as measured by the strength of a school's communal belief in voting, the greater the degree of electoral engagement for any of the school's individual students, regardless of their own personal sense of civic duty.
The trainer said: "I thought Civic Duty was unlucky at Roscommon this week.
In any event, by the end of the night I had convinced them it was their civic duty to keep Northern Life alive.
We work to uphold the equal enjoyment of human rights and civil liberties in an open, secular society and maintain that it is a civic duty to participate in the democratic process and a planetary duty to protect nature's integrity, diversity, and beauty in a secure, sustainable manner.
Is environmental health a luxury unaffordable during times of recession, or should it be seen as a civic duty, a national sport, a category of high morals?
I was juror number four of 12 stuck three days in a courtroom fulfilling my civic duty.
I'M PROUD TO SAY THAT I AM PERFORMing my civic duty.
While the works in the first and last subdivisions are indeed princely advice books, the six in between deal with a wider range of questions of social and civic order, jurisdiction, and civic duty.
Going with the flow: The Lord Mayor, Coun Sue Anderson, visits the heart of Birmingham's water supply source at the Elan Valley reservoirs in Wales, yesterday, during her latest civic duty.
To watch the television coverage, you would almost think it your civic duty to be there, helping to prop up the economy with your purchases.