civil society


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civil society

(as used by HEGEL and MARX) market and economic relations (in contrast with the activity of the STATE); a realm intermediate between the family and the state. More generally, the realm of wider social relations and public participation, as against the narrower operations of the state or of the economy.

The earliest usages of the term in political and social philosophy were to contrast both ‘civil society’ and ‘civil government’ with ‘natural society’ or the ‘state of nature’. In the Scottish Enlightenment, Adam FERGUSON used the term in contrasting Western CIVILIZATION, and its associated forms of government and politics, with non-Western forms of society and their more ‘despotic forms of government (see also ORIENTAL DESPOTISM). The economic and political freedoms associated with civil society are regarded by Marxists as sometimes apparent rather than real (e.g. protecting the interests of private property and capital and enshrining significant freedoms, but instilling selfish individualism and masking underlying economic exploitation, ALIENATION, the loss of earlier community, etc). However, within Marxism, as well as in sociology generally the historical significance of the differentiation of civil society from ‘nature’, the family, and the 'S tate’ is acknowledged on all sides. Distinctions in any of the above senses between civil society and the state operate, even if, as emphasized by GRAMSCI, the state plays a role in the establishment of civil society, and the establishment of civil society also plays a part in protecting or in changing particular state forms (compare PUBLIC SPHERE). See also CIVIL RIGHTS, PUBLIC SPHERE.

References in periodicals archive ?
The deputy foreign minister noted that a strong civil society is very important for every country, otherwise it is very difficult to implement the goals set by the government.
The engagement exercise for the Civil Society Strategy will look at four themes that will strengthen civil society further, exploring the best way sectors can work together, empowering people to take action on the issues that matter to them and improving the places they live and work in.
This is why it is most appropriate to promote an enabling environment for civil society and media initiatives such as dialogues at various levels designed to foster cooperation and trust between the non-government civil societies and the media should be encouraged.
The role of civil society in good governance is to apprise people of their fundamental rights and responsibilities.
Ben Gharbia said that the meeting aims to reinforce dialogue with the civil society and to listen to their proposals which will be useful to the government in taking the necessary measures for the unemployed youth, by fostering positive discrimination to boost development in inland regions.
The law holds a lot of promise for the civil society as independent actors in Kenya's governance and development processes,' Suba Churchill, the CSRG presiding convener said.
In under developed semi-tribal Balochistan, civil society is in its infancy.
Speaking at a press conference organised by the Pakistan Civil Society Forum against the continuously increasing difficulties for international non-government organisations (INGOs) at the National Press Club, Mr Rehman said the registration process for civil society organisations, especially INGOs, was changed in 2015.
ISLAMABAD -- Civil society members from Budgam district have threatened to launch mass protests if India's National Investigating Agency (NIA) continues to harass family members of Hizbul Mujhadeen Chief, Syed Salahuddin in Indian Occupied Kashmir (IOK).
The Institute of Policy Studies organized a civil society conference in November 2013 where practitioners and researchers of public policy identified shifts in Singapore's society, analyzed them, and anticipated future trends.
The present paper attempts to explore diversity of the concept of civil society in the Western (secular) and Islamic (faith-based) traditions.
PESHAWAR -- Caretaker Chief Election Commissioner Justice (retd) Irshad Qaiser has said that political parties, civil society members and media should play their role to motivate women and special person in the process of election that they can cast their vote during election.

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