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(chemical engineering)
The removal of small amounts (usually less than 0.2%) of fine particulate solids from liquids (such as drinking water) by methods such as gravity sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation, filtration, and magnetic separation.


The removal of small amounts of fine, particulate solids from liquids. The purpose is almost invariably to improve the quality of the liquid, and the removed solids often are discarded. The particles removed by a clarifier may be as large as 100 micrometers or as small as 2 micrometers. Clarification is used in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, beverages, and fiber and film polymers; in the reconditioning of electroplating solutions; in the recovery of dry-cleaning solvent; and for the purification of drinking water and waste water. The filters in the feed line and lubricating oil system of an internal combustion engine are clarifiers.

The methods of clarification include gravity sedimentation, centrifugal sedimentation, filtration, and magnetic separation. Clarification differs from other applications of these mechanical separation techniques by the low solid content of the suspension to be clarified (usually less than 0.2%) and the substantial completion of the particle removal. See Filtration, Magnetic separation methods, Mechanical separation techniques, Sedimentation (industry)

References in periodicals archive ?
1 on Tax Conventions and Related Questions for comments on proposed clarifications in the Commentary to the OECD Model Tax Convention on some aspects of the permanent establishment (PE) concept, which were published on 12 April 2004, and would specifically include in the Commentary some widely accepted interpretations of the concept held by the business community.
The good news is that HCFA offered numerous clarifications that are important to front-line providers who have the daily responsibility for assessing Medicare patients and documenting their skilled care needs.
Although several months have passed since HIPAA's tax clarifications went into effect, it is too early to predict the extent to which these will spur demand for private long-term care coverage.