Hydrates of Natural Gases, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1998.
For instance, bacteria may well thrive on the surface of the clathrates
, taking advantage of a gradient in methane concentrations.
have been found to occur naturally in large quantities.
If tidal flexure causes Enceladus's sulci to open and close over the course of an orbit, new cracks could expose clathrates
to the vacuum of space, whereupon they would explode, driving the gas and entrained particles outward at very high speed.
"The objective of the research was to determine how stable the clathrate
methane stores were as the Earth warmed rapidly from its last glacial state and whether clathrates
might be a source of future climate change as global temperatures rise," he explained.
The maximum amount of methane that can occur in methane hydrate is fixed by the clathrate
"The full reaction to form the clathrate
took about 8 hours, and we never saw wholesale melting of the seed ice," says Laura A.
Weaire and Phelan based their arrangement of polyhedral cells on a chemical structure known as a clathrate
. In the particular example they chose, cages of bonded silicon atoms totally enclose sodium atoms - in the ratio of 46 silicon atoms to 8 sodium atoms - to create a three-dimensional, repeating pattern.
Five parameters of phase transformation were recorded, including final ice melting temperature ([T.sub.m-ice]), melting temperature of clathrate
([T.sub.m-cla]), melting temperature of solid [mathematical expression not reproducible], homogenization temperature of C[O.sub.2] liquid and vapour [mathematical expression not reproducible], and total homogenization temperature ([T.sub.h]), depending on the types of FIs.
melting temperatures ([T.sub.m-cla]) vary from 5.5 to 6.8[degrees]C, with which the salinities are calculated to be 6.1 to 8.3wt.% NaCl equivalent by the equation of Hall et al.
Behl, Methane Hydrates in Quaternary Climate Change: The Clathrate
Gun Hypothesis, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., USA, 2003.
For example, silver ion-based agents include compounds that contain silver as part of the structure that can be covalently bound, ionically bound or bound by other mechanisms known as "charge-transfer" complexes, including clathrate
compounds that involve silver or silver species as part of the structure.