A., 1997: Possible mechanisms of clear-air turbulence in strongly anticyclonic flow.
Williams, 2008: Application of the Lighthill-Ford theory of spontaneous imbalance to clear-air turbulence forecasting.
Shapiro, 2012a: An investigation of a commercial aircraft encounter with severe clear-air turbulence over western Greenland.
Joshi, 2017: Global response of clear-air turbulence to climate change.
Clear-air turbulence, which is not visible to the naked eye and cannot be picked up by satellite or traditional radar, is linked to atmospheric jet streams, which are projected to strengthen with climate change.
The study, published in the journal Nature Climate Change, said planes already spent about one percent of their cruise time in strong clear-air turbulence.
A: Clear-air turbulence
is often referred to as `rough air' or `air pockets', and is a safety hazard for aircraft, as it cannot be seen, but definitely can be felt.
Currently, computer models can forecast clear-air turbulence
, but there's no direct detection device.
There he managed projects involving refractive-index turbulence and clear-air turbulence
in the free atmosphere.
Since lee-side troughing is strongly associated with clear-air turbulence
(CAT), it's always a good idea to sift carefully through the turbulence forecasts and PIREPs in this kind of pattern.
Supercell thunderstorms, on the other hand, often produce dangerous clear-air turbulence
downwind that's essentially invisible.
GTG is most useful in forecasting upper-level, clear-air turbulence
(CAT) associated with upper-level fronts and jet streams.