It's called the "cliff effect" because the raise is usually not enough to cover the sudden loss of assistance.
"The cliff effect is real," says Jones, who thinks families should be eased out of the benefit gradually by paying a little more in fees as income rises.
Both programs phase benefits down very slowly as income from employment increases, thus avoiding the cliff effect
inherent in other benefit programs, such as child care.
This Article argues that a cliff effect
based on income is necessarily problematic on both equity and efficiency grounds because it improperly penalizes taxpayers and disincentivizes the economic empowerment the associated tax provision is intended to promote.
The common approach is that if Carrier to Noise relation (C/N) is below a certain value, there will be a cliff effect
(also called brick effect or "brick wall" effect or "fall off the cliff") that will cause an immediate degradation of the signal [14-16].
It is possible that a home may be in a position where a digital signal cannot reach it adequately and where digital broadcast signals are subject to the "cliff effect
." If the technician is equipped with a signal meter, he will be able to determine what is happening if a channel is unavailable.
The cliff effect
of the rules (i.e., the expenditure is either fully deductible or capitalized and often never recovered) exacerbates the problem, he explained.
of P of Year nests df [[Chi].sup.2] cliff effect
1981 98 1 19.72 0.0001 1982 786 16 135.78 0.0001 1983 755 15 79.94 0.0001 1984 655 15 53.57 0.0001 1985 540 14 66.16 0.0001 1986 808 20 43.50 0.0018 1987 753 20 64.52 0.0001 1988 489 14 48.28 0.0001 1989(*) 310 9 10.50 0.3112 1990 678 15 58.57 0.0001 1991 679 14 35.98 0.0011 1992 772 17 60.69 0.0001 * This was an unusual year during our 17-yr study: a very low proportion of adults bred [approximately 35% vs.
First, there is the cliff effect
, which shows that price differences can alter markets in cross-border areas (specifically price differences caused by different tax levels).
These measures address the "cliff effect
" problem many C-DAP participants have encountered in the past.
The term "equity cost," as used in this Article, is an aggregate microeconomic metric that represents the net economic loss suffered by all taxpayers who are in a worse economic situation post-tax than they would have been had they not exceeded the cliff effect
A minimum level of liquid assets should be held at banks to ensure their ability to sustain a short term liquidity stress and banks should also structure their funding profile to limit the impact of long term market disruptions and avoid cliff effects