Natural evolution of forests over different geological period of time in different parts of the country falling under diverse climatic conditions, have influenced the species succession, modification and adaptations to different climatic niches, thus evolving into a mosaic of diverse forest types reaching numerous climatic climax formations.
Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests: Giant evergreen forests have shown a greater resilience and have remained in a climatic climax state without any disturbances.
The surveys of tropical wet evergreen forest types in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu states revealed that species composition are progressing towards stable climatic climax formation through natural succession processes.
Mature seral vegetation was used to differentiate regions because it provided greater potential for separating climatically and ecologically different areas than climatic climax vegetation, which is similar throughout much of the territory.
Picea albertianal Hylocomium splendens (stairstep moss) is the potential climatic climax vegetation.
Picea alhertiana, Picea mariana, and sometime Abies lasiocarpa with Hylocomium splendens are the potential climatic climax species on submesic to hygric sites.
Thus, he presented `tropical rain forest' as the primaeval, undisturbed, climatic climax
and optimum of the tropical world, a veritable `cathedral of the wild'.