For this investigation, the authors used an Invicta clinometer
('Invicta' Plastics Limited, England) and instructions are specific to this instrument.
If you are unwilling to spring for the cost of a handheld clinometer
, there is another option if you own an iPhone: Several inexpensive apps turn your phone into an accurate clinometer
This is done by taking a slope reading using a clinometer
from the base of the headcut to the gully length downstream, where a range pole is positioned in the middle of the gully Gully length was measured using a meter tape, through a series of traverses along the gully extent, from the headcut towards downstream, ending at the point that depth was less than 30.48 cm (1 ft).
These were: light intensity at the face of the shelter [Yokogawa lux meter, Yew 3281], moisture of the soil at the base of the tree [Hydrosense, Campbell Scientific, Australia], ground slope (using a clinometer
), ground cover (i.e., percent area leaf litter, bare ground, vascular plants) and the depth of loose litter above firm soil.
The gradient of each plot was measured with a clinometer
. Surface stoniness and litter were estimated as percentages.
At that marked point, they used a clinometer
(forester's instrument that measures height/slope in order to determine tree height based on the angle of measurement) <See Figure 1> to measure the height of the tree.
The essential tools of the soil surveyor have been the base map (either a geologic map or an aerial map), a spade, an auger or probe, a clinometer
to determine slope, a soil color chart or set of color vials, and experience (Figure 15-1).
For example, they use an increment borer to age trees, soil pH and temperature meters, and a clinometer
to estimate the height of the trees."
Height of randomly selected trees along plot boundaries was measured with a clinometer
. Trunk diameter at 1.3 m above ground surface (dbh) was measured with a diameter tape.
The height of trees was measured to the nearest 0.1 m using a Suunto clinometer
. In the rest of the plantations the average parameters of trees were estimated visually.
One or two days prior to the expedition, the math teacher demonstrates the use of a clinometer
to calculate the height of various distant objects like mountains (i.e., buildings) and trees that the explorers will encounter on their journey (See insert on Handout B).