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Enclitics are reduced or contracted forms of words. They are attached to the word that precedes them by an apostrophe, and they are dependent on that word for their meaning.
Enclitics generally consist of just one consonant sound and cannot stand on their own. In English, they are usually the unstressed forms of functional words such as auxiliary verbs, determiners, participles, and pronouns. As such, they have grammatical rather than lexical meaning (compared with suffixes, which create new words through inflection).
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an unstressed word that in speech becomes attached to the previous stressed word. The two words together form an accentual unit, or phonetic word. The most common enclitics in Russian are particles, such as by, zhe, -ka, li, and -to, as in gdé-by and ddi-ka. Pronouns, nouns, and verbs, depending on the context, can also function as enclitics, as in the sentence Gdé byl étot chelovék? (“Where was that man?”)

References in periodicals archive ?
Epenthetic vowels and consonants may be inserted between the stem and the clitic , e.
Phonological conditions on Portuguese clitic placement: on syntactic evidence for stress and rhythmical patterns.
Errors in the use of clitic pronouns: twenty five (25) examples were identified in which the children seemed to struggle with the use of the appropriate clitic pronouns, as evidenced in word order errors, omission errors, and errors in which unnecessary clitic pronouns were added, as shown in the following examples:
7 It would be better that the whole paradigm for strong Pashto personal pronouns is given, notwithstanding the fact that another paradigm for clitic pronouns or pronominal clitics exist, but they are irrelevant here:
These data show that a speaker can map two different prosodic structures (stress retained on the imperative verb even when enclitic pronouns are added (a), and stress on the final clitic pronoun (b)) onto the same non-Italian syntactic structure (imperative verb + accusative clitic + dative clitic).
When the goal is not doubled by a clitic, the a-phrase is a PPC, as in (9a).
These aspects include assignment of thematic roles in passive sentences and assignment of referents in relative clauses (Hesketh, 2006) and in those that contain clitic pronouns (see for a review van der Lely, 2004, 2005).
A multifaceted analysis of the interlanguage development of Spanish directobject clitic pronouns observed in L2-learner production.
In this analysis, the clitic starts off adjoined to the doubled DP before it moves to spec vP where it undergoes m-merger with v per Matushansky (2006).
Example (11) shows that the clitic yee co-refers to the left-dislocated nominal kitab.
The Inner Thematic Field includes the Thematic Head, which functions to signal the most central participant(s), either explicitly through pre-verbal lexicalized Subject or Complement or implicitly through the verbal suffix indicating person, or through Complement expressed as a pre-verbal clitic, as well as to "present some experiential element as most closely aligned with the speaker's vantage point of view" (300).
2) The forms in question include the Romanian accusatives mine, tine and sine, the stressed counterparts to the clitic m(a), te and s(e); LogudoreseNuorese Sardinian mene and tene, which in some variants of the dialect coexist with the shorter me and te; Veglia Dalmatian main and the predictable but unattested *tain and *sain, the stressed counterparts, respectively, of me, te and se; and central and southern Italian mene, tene and sene, in their local garb, used alongside the unstressed me, te and se in Tuscany, Umbria, Lazio, the Marche, Abruzzo, Naples, Calabria, Sicily and Salento (Bartoli, Das Dalmatische, vol.