As observed in the gonoducts, great variation exists in the male cloaca of salamanders, and this variation is mainly due to the presence or absence of different cloacal glands. Cloacal gland morphology has been examined extensively (Sever, 1991a, b; 1992a d).
In terms of cloacal glands, the pleisiomorphic characteristic for salamanders was recovered as lacking cloacal glands for every gland complex (characters 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 14, states 0).
The foam produced by the cloacal gland is an androgen dependent secondary sexual character in the male Japanese quail and could be used as an external index of sexual maturity (Mohan et al., 2002; Marin and Satterlee, 2004).
Cloacal gland and testes development in male Japanese quail selected for divergent adrenocortical responsiveness.
Effects of antioxidants on body weight, cloacal gland
foam production in male Japanese quail.
In this study, we investigated the residues of fluoroquinolone drugs (ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin) in the cloacal gland
(a site of foam synthesis) and other tissues, such as breast muscle, testes, brain, kidney, and plasma.
The only other water-borne peptide pheromones that have been characterized to date include a small family of structurally related mating pheromones from the ciliated protozoan Euplotes (e.g., Raffioni et al., 1988, 1992; Stewart et al., 1992); several small families of mating pheromones in different genera of yeast (e.g., Saccharomyces, Stotzler et al., 1976; Rhodospiridium, Kamiya et al., 1978); and a female attractant from the cloacal gland
of male red-bellied newts (Cynops; Kikuyama et al., 1995).
The width (lateral) and height (dorsoventral) of the cloacal gland
were measured to the nearest 0.01 mm using vernier calipers.
Females have cloacal glands
that produce attractants for males, and males have hedonic and cloacal glands
Male cloacal glands
of Plethodon cinereus and Plethodon dorsalis (Amphibia: Plethodontidae).