clock-time

clock-time

the measurement of the passage of time in standard intervals and ultimately with reference to a fixed benchmark, e.g. Greenwich Mean Time. Although now taken for granted, the measurement of time in such standardized ways – and the ‘tyranny of the clock’ – is a relatively recent phenomenon in human societies, and is usually seen as associated with the rise of INSTRUMENTAL RATIONALITY and in particular Western capitalism. The term ‘clock’ derives from the bell towers which in pre-industrial societies were used to provide signals for the coordination of human activities. The first mechanical clocks are said to have been invented by monks as early as the 13th century and came into wide use in the 17th century. The coming of railways and other modern forms of transportation was a final stimulus necessitating the standardization of time. The regularized working hours of the modern FACTORY SYSTEM represented a significant break with earlier more informal patterns of DOMESTIC PRODUCTION (see Thompson, 1967), and it is significant that Marx's conception of SURPLUS VALUE is stated in terms of hours of labour-time.
References in periodicals archive ?
The clock-time method of driving exploration of a spinoff's business model to a set timeline may lead to premature conclusions on issues like the direction and business potential of a new venture.
This managed timing approach can be used to navigate the thin line between rushing ahead, in reflexive response to clock-time deadlines, and missing opportunities by quitting before the technology's potential fully materializes.
Borrowing from this approach, a critical horology would support a deeper exploration of the grounds upon which clocks and clock-time are produced, the relationships both have with power (in the present and historically), and an opening up of who might experiment with the possibilities and potentialities of the clock.
He discusses theory, method, and time; the origin of clock-time and the origin of capitalism, and capitalist social time relations.
The training will be held in three groups: - Group 1 - organizing and conducting workshops compensatory subjects (physics) in clock-time 12 hours per participant, up to 10 people in Brodnica - Group 2 - organizing and conducting workshops equalization of school subjects (Polish language, mathematics) in the clock-time 12 hours per participant, up to 10 people in Inowroclaw - Group 3 - organizing and conducting workshops compensatory subjects (Polish language, mathematics, physics, chemistry, history) in clock-time 12 hours per participant for 20 people in Bydgoszcz.
"It was a symbolic burning of the summer's animal carcasses to ward off, and warn of, the oncoming frost; part of the seasonal ritual of marking time, before clock-time, when the world's turn was measured by sun and moon, tides and shifts in the weather.
According to Paul Glennie and Nigel Thrift's book, such aural signals punctuating our lives with clock-time have been part of everyday life far longer than many historians have admitted.
Gendered results indicate that male athletes were more likely to be depicted as courageous, lucky, and introverted, and received the majority of the clock-time and athlete mentions.
The recent rediscovery of concrete lived time from 'clock-time' by process theorists enables us to make important adjustments in our thinking about the true nature of temporality, movement and change.
There are, in effect, research times beyond the clock-time measure.
Yet if slave-holders did attempt to instil a "factorylike" time-discipline in their bondpeople, and if slaves did manage to resist clock-time regularity and routine, Genovese and those who have accepted his interpretation have declined to document how and why.
The prospective clock-time approach to decision making emphasizes the 'commodification' of time as well illustrated in the practice of assessing investment decisions.