clock-time

clock-time

the measurement of the passage of time in standard intervals and ultimately with reference to a fixed benchmark, e.g. Greenwich Mean Time. Although now taken for granted, the measurement of time in such standardized ways – and the ‘tyranny of the clock’ – is a relatively recent phenomenon in human societies, and is usually seen as associated with the rise of INSTRUMENTAL RATIONALITY and in particular Western capitalism. The term ‘clock’ derives from the bell towers which in pre-industrial societies were used to provide signals for the coordination of human activities. The first mechanical clocks are said to have been invented by monks as early as the 13th century and came into wide use in the 17th century. The coming of railways and other modern forms of transportation was a final stimulus necessitating the standardization of time. The regularized working hours of the modern FACTORY SYSTEM represented a significant break with earlier more informal patterns of DOMESTIC PRODUCTION (see Thompson, 1967), and it is significant that Marx's conception of SURPLUS VALUE is stated in terms of hours of labour-time.
References in periodicals archive ?
He discusses theory, method, and time; the origin of clock-time and the origin of capitalism, and capitalist social time relations.
The training will be held in three groups: - Group 1 - organizing and conducting workshops compensatory subjects (physics) in clock-time 12 hours per participant, up to 10 people in Brodnica - Group 2 - organizing and conducting workshops equalization of school subjects (Polish language, mathematics) in the clock-time 12 hours per participant, up to 10 people in Inowroclaw - Group 3 - organizing and conducting workshops compensatory subjects (Polish language, mathematics, physics, chemistry, history) in clock-time 12 hours per participant for 20 people in Bydgoszcz.
According to Paul Glennie and Nigel Thrift's book, such aural signals punctuating our lives with clock-time have been part of everyday life far longer than many historians have admitted.
Their work reveals the long life of clock-time as part of daily existence, countering the view expounded most famously by E.
Gendered results indicate that male athletes were more likely to be depicted as courageous, lucky, and introverted, and received the majority of the clock-time and athlete mentions.
Yet, the widespread adoption of standardized clock-time, established and coordinated through fixed time zones, has also led to intensive reflections and speculation on the true nature of time.
Following the results of the Michelson and Morley experiments of 1888, and Hendrick Lorenz's (1895) speculation that perhaps clock-time was dilated by motion, Einstein's theory of relativity (1905/16/52) concluded that all temporal coordinates for measuring time are relative to a specific reference system, thereby implying the reality of a multiplicity of clock-times that are entirely dependent upon individual perspectives and frameworks.
Yet if slave-holders did attempt to instil a "factorylike" time-discipline in their bondpeople, and if slaves did manage to resist clock-time regularity and routine, Genovese and those who have accepted his interpretation have declined to document how and why.
In rendering their slaves extremely sensitive to (and obedient of) clock-time, ante-bellum southern masters succeeded in regulating slave work-times and work-rates by the clock, and in effect produced a time-based form of plantation capitalism that has remained overlooked by historians of the old South.
These include controlling access to computer rooms, individual terminals or data networks; wire transfer terminals and vaults in banks, even replacing time clock-time card equipment in plants and offices.
The prospective clock-time approach to decision making emphasizes the 'commodification' of time as well illustrated in the practice of assessing investment decisions.