A closed universe
has more deceleration and is smaller than an open universe.
(ii) Bulk viscous stress n is positive valued and tends to infinity with the evolution of time for flat and closed Universe
whereas it is negative-positive valued for open Universe in 0.7 < [[alpha].sub.4] [less than or equal to] 0.8 and [[alpha].sub.2] = 0.5.
In this paper we explore only the k = case (closed Universe
He instead argues for restrictions on the determination of such events by the arche of divine providence, thus leaving them anarchic with respect to its order but capable of introducing new beginnings in the otherwise closed universe
Dark matter, the question of an open or closed universe
, and inflationary theory are all tackled successfully with style and grace.
The cosmos would teeter between an open universe, in which the expansion continues forever, and a closed universe
, in which complete collapse is inevitable.
136, who observes, 'For if the actual closed universe
arose by a process of quantum tunneling from a prior stable initial state, then the universe in its pre-creation state could not remain indefinitely long in that state, if indeed it is unstable with respect to quantum tunneling'.
The open or closed universe
can also be recently accelerated by the dark energy.
At the most basic level, there are three possible types of universe: "closed," "flat," and "open." The fiery destruction scheduled for a closed universe
was detailed in 1969 in a pioneering article by Martin Rees (now England's Astronomer Royal).
Nonetheless, cautions Burstein, "One massive group does not a closed universe
make." He and his colleagues hope to refine their temperature measurement of the gas cloud using an X-ray detector aboard Astro-D, a Japanese satellite scheduled for launch next month.
From this statement it is very clear and can be suggested that, the possibility for a "closed universe
" and a "flat universe" is 50-50 per cent and one can not completely avoid the concept of a "closed universe
If there is enough mass, galaxies' mutual gravitational attraction will cause them to stop receding from each other, and the universe will end in a Big Crunch -- the closed universe
. Alternately, if momentum from the Big Bang wins the day, galaxies will escape this attraction, and expansion will continue unchecked -- the open universe.