The Mediterranean region features a nearly closed sea
surrounded by urbanized littorals and mountains that acts as a transition zone between humid climates to the north and arid climates to the south.
Angered by Turkmenistan's plans to sell its gas to Europe, Russia and Iran have voiced concerns that a gas pipeline to be laid in the shallow Caspian could harm the fragile ecology of the closed sea
Now, Ankara and Ashgabat are closely co-ordinating efforts with the EU and US for the proposed Trans-Caspian Pipeline to be build across the closed sea
for the supply of Turkmen natural gas to Turkey and the EU.
John Selden, who donated the map to Oxford in his will, was a lawyer whose work The Closed Sea
, written in part to refute Hugo de Groot's defense of open seas, articulated the English position in the then emerging and critically important debate over the law of the sea.
Over time though, Selden's closed sea arguments lost
Conventions beginning with UNCLOS I in 1958, the closed sea argument was
Unlike the Gulf of Mexico, the Middle Eastern Gulf, a major global supplier of oil, has very shallow waters and is almost a closed sea
with its bottleneck link to the Indian Ocean.
As rich in history as it is in minerals, this salty closed sea
at 420 m below sea level is the best place in the world to reinvigorate your skin and counter the effects of ageing and the stress of everyday life.
Not only are the neighbours shut out, but the relatively closed sea
front, which (with the shutters) helps control the fierce west sun beating off the water, and the closed head of the vaults (a small but telling detail) means that the presence of sea and sky is also judiciously measured.
He also underlined that the legal regime of the lakes and closed seas
is determined through the agreement and consensus of all littoral states, "and the same rule applies to the Caspian Sea as well".
Substantial morphological diversity also occurs within species of cetaceans; common observation is that animals of a given species living in open ocean tend to be larger than members of the same species in closed seas
The EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) specifies that an effective and coherent water policy must take account of the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems located near the coast and estuaries or in gulfs or relatively closed seas