In rejecting the UN ruling that denied its unilateral claims over the South China Sea, China was returning to the 15th-century Iberian principle of the 'closed sea
,' subject to the control of one country.
"The protocol is based on the maritime conventions, since the Caspian Sea is a closed sea
, the sea conventions do not cover it, and therefore the five coastal countries must formulate laws together and on an agreed basis, which is why these meetings are formed," he said.
The problem is that this can only refer to the immediate effect, and not the total effect over many years in a closed sea
such as the Arabian Gulf, where the IIAR reports that the GCC states alone have desalination plants with a total seawater desalination capacity of approximately 45 per cent of the worldwide daily production, and this does not include the desalination going on in Iran.
He added that the troops would be deployed "to ensure control of the closed sea
zones of the Kuril Islands and the Bering Strait, cover the routes of Pacific Fleet forces' deployment in the Far Eastern and Northern sea zones, and increase the combat viability of naval strategic nuclear forces."
Authorities relocated coastal residents, evacuated tourists from beach hotels and closed sea
ports, airports and schools in several states before the category five hurricane made landfall in the western state of Jalisco.
The impact of Italy's push-back politics is the focus of Andrea Segre and Stefano Liberti's documentary Closed Sea
(2012) and the human rights campaign "No More Push-Backs" that was created to petition the cancellation of the Italian-Libyan agreement on immigration while also promoting the newly released film throughout Italy.
The Mediterranean region features a nearly closed sea
surrounded by urbanized littorals and mountains that acts as a transition zone between humid climates to the north and arid climates to the south.
Angered by Turkmenistan's plans to sell its gas to Europe, Russia and Iran have voiced concerns that a gas pipeline to be laid in the shallow Caspian could harm the fragile ecology of the closed sea
Now, Ankara and Ashgabat are closely co-ordinating efforts with the EU and US for the proposed Trans-Caspian Pipeline to be build across the closed sea
for the supply of Turkmen natural gas to Turkey and the EU.
China will transmute the waters bounded by the first island chain into a closed sea
ruled by Chinese domestic law.
John Selden, who donated the map to Oxford in his will, was a lawyer whose work The Closed Sea
, written in part to refute Hugo de Groot's defense of open seas, articulated the English position in the then emerging and critically important debate over the law of the sea.
By analysing the Portuguese and Spanish journeys to Nusantara (Chapter 7), Hamid also discusses the principle of mare clausum (closed sea
, in which the ocean is controlled by certain powers/ countries).