The superelevation of the first curve is equal to 60 mm with a clothoid
curve transition 30 m long, the second curve has the same transition curve but a superelevation equal to 70 mm.
To be able to achieve the remarkable horsepower and torque on such a small engine, Isuzu gave it a host of advanced technological features, such as a well-designed combustion system-composed of Diamond Like Coated piston pins, coupled with a clothoid
curve combustion chamber, new fracture split design connecting rods and DLC fuel-injector needles, which were all engineered to reduce friction, resulting in a better fuel economy and lesser exhaust emissions.
Euler spiral is also known as Cornu's spiral or clothoid
. The Euler spiral is widely applied in highway/railway or robotic trajectories design due to its linear curvature property (curvature varies linearly with respect to arc length).
We refer to the methods for clothoid
designing and, particularly to the observance of the minimum development of the residual arc that could be brought from a formal point of view to unjustified designing solutions incompatible with territorial pre-existences and costs.
is often prefered for highways and railway route design (Meek, Walton 2004a; 2004b).
To smooth transitions, segments were joined with clothoid
curves 5.6 m long.
The IPA plans the turning curvature in accordance with the vehicle movement by using a clothoid
curve and determining the minimized steering angle.
Leite, "Smooth trajectory planning for fully automated passengers vehicles: Spline and clothoid
based methods and its simulation," Informatics in control automation and robotics, pp.