These measures provide detailed cloud particle
properties and are referred to as attributes.
In this case, the water cloud particle
is the same as that in Figure 3 and the concentration of black carbon aerosol has been considered as 5000 ppb (parts per billion).
Similar to other metaheuristic algorithms, the proposed algorithm begins with an initial population called the cloud particles
. Each cloud particle
in CPDD algorithm represents a solution in the population.
Topics include measurement of aircraft state and thermodynamic and dynamic variables; in situ measurements of gas, aerosol particles, and cloud and precipitation particles; aerosol and cloud particle
sampling; atmospheric radiation measurements; hyperspectral remote sensing; and LIDAR and RADAR observations.
Unfortunately, ice nucleation in this layer was not confirmed by cloud particle
sensor (CPS) observations as they were missing for this flight.
The 3V-CPI probe, made by SPEC Inc., combines the cloud particle
imager (CPI) and the 2D stereo probe (2D-S) into a single instrument.
In this study monthly mean cloud effective radius of ice phase (cloud particle
size) (QA-W) from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Level-3, cloud ice concentration from 3A12 version 6, and area averaged lightning from Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on board of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission's (TRMM) satellite for the period of 2000-2011 data sets have been used for analysis.
"A cloud particle
is basically water and aerosols," explains the study's lead author, Sudip Chakraborty, who recently received his Ph.D.
Classification into cloud particle
types utilizes vertical structures of reflectivity, Doppler velocity, and temperature to identify three-dimensional ice (3D), horizontally oriented ice (2D), liquid water, the melting layer, snow, and rain.
A composite cloud particle
size distribution using four wing-mounted cloud probes is shown in Fig.
(2006a) made a detailed study of ice crystals using various in situ instruments including a cloud particle
imaging probe and polar nephelometer at the South Pole Station; ice crystal number concentration of up to 500 [L.sup.-1] was found for sizes <200 [micro]m, suggesting that small ice crystals were abundant.
aACoeWe collect cloud particles
and from that mix, we identify whether clouds will form or not, and if clouds will form, how much time will they take.