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(tăl`əpēz'), deformity in which the foot is twisted out of position. Maldevelopment is usually congenital, although it can result from injury or disease (e.g., poliomyelitis) after birth. It can affect one or both feet. Often the foot is twisted downward, with the heel and toe turning inward, causing only part of the foot—the heel, the toes, or the outer margin—to touch the ground; walking is difficult or impossible. Correction can be made in infancy by manipulation, braces, and casts; in severe cases only surgery can correct the condition.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a permanent deformation of the foot, characterized by the bringing of the anterior part inward, the flexing of the sole, and the enlargement of the longitudinal arch of the foot.

Clubfoot is most often congenital and is accompanied by changes in the muscles, ligaments, and bones of the foot. At its origin lie hereditary causes or disturbances in the sex cells of the parents (for example, change in the set of chromosomes as a result of alcoholism, syphilis, and certain other diseases of the father or mother). In children who have not begun to walk, the changes are not so vivid; the foot only passively turns in the correct position. In the severe form of clubfoot there are marked changes in the bones of the feet, and the deformity is almost impossible to correct. Serving as support during walking is the outer anterior part of the foot, on which is formed a large, calloused thickening.

Treatment of congenital clubfoot is begun in the first days of an infant’s life (as soon as the umbilicus falls off). Therapeutic exercises are conducted six to seven times a day during the first days. After ten to 12 days treatment is carried out by means of the application of plaster casts in stages until the foot remains in correct position. If conservative treatment is not successful by the age of 2½i to three, an operation is performed, with subsequent application of a plaster cast for six months.

The cause of acquired clubfoot may be poliomyelitis or inflammatory processes and traumas of the foot and leg. Treatment consists of the application of plaster casts in stages and sometimes surgery—that is, transplantation of muscles and arthrodesis; more rarely, the condition is treated by osteotomy of bones of the leg and foot.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


Congenital malpositioning of a foot such that the forefoot is inverted and rotated with a shortened Achilles tendon.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
This facility is equipped to treat 24 children with clubfoot daily.
Proposed etiologies of idiopathic clubfoot include extrinsic pressure in utero, nerve injury, bone anomalies, failure of muscle development, and circulatory deficiency.
Conclusion: Ponseti clubfoot management technique has reduced the need for extensive soft tissue release and major clubfoot surgery.
Eight year-old Arki Lozano of team Bukidnon Kids Triathon team will also be a kid to watch and be an inspiration for others as he was born with a bilateral clubfoot which both his feet are twisted from the inside.
Alba's spirited nature keeps her afloat through the tough times having a clubfoot has caused, but she is not immune to wanting to be like her classmates, or dreaming of breaking free from her disability.
Currently, closed management such as serial casting is known as the gold standard treatment of idiopathic clubfoot. Long-term studies have reported excellent results in using the Ponseti method of clubfoot manipulation and serial casting accompanied with Achilles tendon tenotomy and foot abduction brace.
About one child in 800 worldwide is born with clubfoot, in which one or both feet are twisted and deformed.
Summary: New Delhi [India], November 1 (ANI): President Ram Nath Kovind on Wednesday urged all to take a national resolve that by 2022, every child born with clubfoot gets access to treatment as soon as the condition is diagnosed.
by PTI President Ram Nath Kovind inaugurating the Global Clubfoot Conference being organised by CURE India at Vigyan Bhavan in New Delhi on Wednesday.
Background: Clubfoot is a disease characterized by complex malformed feet or foot without the malformations of other bones and joints in the body.
The available evidence is "suggestive but not sufficient" to infer causality between maternal smoking in pregnancy and atrial septal defects, clubfoot, gastroschisis, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other disruptive behavior disorders.