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the permanent, incorrect positioning of the hand in relation to the axis of the forearm.
Congenital clubhand is caused by the underdevelopment or absence of the radius or ulna and also by the shortening of muscle tendons and ligaments. Radial clubhand occurs when there is underdevelopment or absence of the radius and is found seven times more frequently than ulnar clubhand; it is usually accompanied by the absence of the thumb. Ulnar clubhand is combined with the underdevelopment or absence of the third to fifth fingers.
Acquired clubhand develops with fractures or with inflammatory or tumor processes in the areas of the epiphysis of the radius or ulna. Treatment of children up to six years of age is conservative; after that age surgery is performed.