The importance of the mandible and clypeal
arch of the first instar larvae in the classification of the Sarcophagidae (Diptera).
0 mm; cranium smooth, colour yellowish brown; frons with median longitudinal depression, single posterior frontal seta and single anterior angle seta; one round pigmented area medially at each side of frontal suture; dorsoepicranium with 2 widely separated, medium sized setae at each side; tentorial pits evident; stemmata evident; clypeus subtrapezoidal in shape, with 1 posterior clypeal
seta and 1 or 2 exterior clypeal
setae; preclypeus weakly sclerotized, without setae; labrum with anterior border trilobed and clithra present; epipharynx (Fig.
Systematic position: according to Edmonds (1994 and personal communication, 2012; Edmonds & Zidek, 2012) and taking into account the shape of cephalic carina, clypeal
process, and paraocular ridge, Phanaeus violetae appears to be very near the extant Phanaeus achilles Boheman; both are members of a monophyletic unit, the chalcomelas species group, which also includes P.
But it is not Vespula austriaca: there is no long pilosity on the outer side of the hindtibia, and the clypeal
angles are sharp but not acute.
margin medially broadened, with two tubercles in the middle (Figs.
Parvimyrma sangi is a Carebara species with central clypeal
hair, an attribute sporadically present in other Carebara workers (see below).
Arrows indicate pores (cp = clypeal
pore, fr = frontal pore).
Colour: Carapace with two ill-defined longitudinal brown stripes; setae dark brown; clypeus white, white clypeal
mark extending to above AMEs; eye region brown; eye tubercles greyish brown.
Similarly, the frons does not extend beyond the clypeal
suture in M.
shape subtrapezoidal, anterior margin straight, surface rugo-strigulate.
HL, head length: midline length of head proper, from the anterior clypeal
margin to the midpoint of a line drawn across the posterior margin of the head.
Clypeus with patches of white setae at anterior-lateral clypeal
area, height 0.