coal liquefaction

coal liquefaction

[¦kōl lik·wə′fak·shən]
(chemical engineering)
The conversion of coal (with the exception of anthracite) to petroleum-like hydrocarbon liquids, which are used as refinery feedstocks for the manufacture of gasoline, heating oil, diesel fuel, jet fuel, turbine fuel, fuel oil, and petrochemicals.

Coal liquefaction

The conversion of most types of coal (with the exception of anthracite) primarily to petroleumlike hydrocarbon liquids which can be substituted for the standard liquid or solid fuels used to meet transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial fuel requirements. Coal liquids contain less sulfur, nitrogen, and ash, and are easier to transport and use than the parent (solid) coal. These liquids are suitable refinery feedstocks for the manufacture of gasoline, heating oil, diesel fuel, jet fuel, turbine fuel, fuel oil, and petrochemicals.

Liquefying coal involves increasing the ratio of hydrogen to carbon atoms (H:C) considerably—from about 0.8 to 1.5–2.0. This can be done in two ways: (1) indirectly, by first gasifying the coal to produce a synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and then reconstructing liquid molecules by Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis reactions; or (2) directly, by chemically adding hydrogen to the coal matrix under conditions of high pressure and temperature. In either case (with the exception of methanol synthesis), a wide range of products is obtained, from light hydrocarbon gases to heavy liquids. Even waxes, which are solid at room temperature, may be produced, depending on the specific conditions employed.

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Coal liquefaction technology applied either directly or indirectly is considered to be a promising method for the production of liquid fuels, as well as chemical feedstock [1-3].
Contract Awarded to Providing of Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) services to CSCLC's direct coal liquefaction project.
This is due to the high cost of coal liquefaction technology, coupled with a lack of proper incentives from the government and subsidised local fuel prices.
Upcoming technology such as Coal Liquefaction and Gasification Technology, Carbon Capture & Storage/Sequestration (CCS), and Efficiency improvement by Ultra Supercritical Pulverized Coal (USPC), and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) are the emerging trends that are likely to boost the market.
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NORDIC BUSINESS REPORT-June 4, 2014-Alfa Laval awarded SEK100m order for heat exchangers from coal liquefaction plant in China
The Government has notified coal gasification and coal liquefaction as end uses under captive mining policy.
The report has proposed to use coal liquefaction technology to cover coal from solid state to liquid fuels as a substitute for petroleum products.
This includes clean coal, coal liquefaction, and gasification.
China's New Coal Chemical Industry Policy, 2012 is poised to launch major projectsin seven areas, namely, coal liquefaction, coal-to-gas, coal-to-olefins, coal-to-ammonia/urea, coal-to-glycol, low-rank coal upgrading, and coal-to-aromatics up through 2015.
The contract is being signed to jointly develop a coal liquefaction project in the country.
But the problem for planners is that the site was a coal liquefaction plant in the 1980s and then a waste oil reprocessing plant with a permission to continue until 2016.