coal liquefaction

coal liquefaction

[¦kōl lik·wə′fak·shən]
(chemical engineering)
The conversion of coal (with the exception of anthracite) to petroleum-like hydrocarbon liquids, which are used as refinery feedstocks for the manufacture of gasoline, heating oil, diesel fuel, jet fuel, turbine fuel, fuel oil, and petrochemicals.

Coal liquefaction

The conversion of most types of coal (with the exception of anthracite) primarily to petroleumlike hydrocarbon liquids which can be substituted for the standard liquid or solid fuels used to meet transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial fuel requirements. Coal liquids contain less sulfur, nitrogen, and ash, and are easier to transport and use than the parent (solid) coal. These liquids are suitable refinery feedstocks for the manufacture of gasoline, heating oil, diesel fuel, jet fuel, turbine fuel, fuel oil, and petrochemicals.

Liquefying coal involves increasing the ratio of hydrogen to carbon atoms (H:C) considerably—from about 0.8 to 1.5–2.0. This can be done in two ways: (1) indirectly, by first gasifying the coal to produce a synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and then reconstructing liquid molecules by Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis reactions; or (2) directly, by chemically adding hydrogen to the coal matrix under conditions of high pressure and temperature. In either case (with the exception of methanol synthesis), a wide range of products is obtained, from light hydrocarbon gases to heavy liquids. Even waxes, which are solid at room temperature, may be produced, depending on the specific conditions employed.

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ESI FT-ICR mass spectral analysis of coal liquefaction products.
China's New Coal Chemical Industry Policy, 2012 is poised to launch major projectsin seven areas, namely, coal liquefaction, coal-to-gas, coal-to-olefins, coal-to-ammonia/urea, coal-to-glycol, low-rank coal upgrading, and coal-to-aromatics up through 2015.
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Coal liquefaction is a technology that breaks down coal and even removes all the toxins such as mercury, sulphur and heavy metals.
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Starting in 1980, Kobe Steel participated in a national project to develop brown coal liquefaction, a coal-to-oil technology.
Achievement of this strategic milestone helps pave the way for the continued development of the coal liquefaction facility that will also export 350 megawatts of power from an integrated coal gasification unit.
China has also expressed strong interest in coal liquefaction technology, and it would like to see liquid fuels based on coal substitute for some of its petroleum demand for transport.
This was shown in the construction, during the late 1920s -- early 1930s, of the first coal liquefaction plants in petroleum-poor Germany and Great Britain.